Wednesday, 24 November 2021

A “Prophet” for Profit: More of Muhammad’s Inconsistencies Exposed

The Quran explicitly states that jizya, i.e. a sum of money, was to be taken only from the “people of the Book,” e.g., Jews and Christians:

O ye who believe! The idolaters only are unclean. So let them not come near the Inviolable Place of Worship after this their year. If ye fear poverty (from the loss of their merchandise) Allah shall preserve you of His bounty if He will. Lo! Allah is Knower, Wise. Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low. S. 9:28-29 Pickthall

Ibn Kathir explains the reason why Muhammad’s deity ordered him to extract jizya from Jews and Christians:

The Battle of Tabuk

According to the scholars of Syirah [sic], this battle took place in Rajab, in the 9th year of Hijra.

Occasion of the Battle

When Allah, Most High, ordered the believers to prohibit the disbelievers form [sic] entering or coming near the sacred Mosque. On that, Quraish thought that this would reduce their profit from trade. THEREFORE, Allah, Most High, COMPENSATED THEM and ordered them to fight the people of the Book UNTIL THEY EMBRACE ISLAM OR PAY THE JIZYAH. Allah says… (At-Tawbah: 28-29)

Therefore, the Messenger of Allah decided to fight the Romans IN ORDER TO CALL THEM TO ISLAM… (Ibn Kathir, The Battles of the Prophet, translated by Wa’il ‘Abdul Mut’aal Shihab [Dar Al-Manarah/El-Mansoura, Egypt, Second edition 2001], pp. 183-184; capital emphasis ours)


Idolators are no longer allowed into Al-Masjid Al-Haram

Allah commands His believing servants, who are pure in religion and person, to expel the idolators who are filthy in the religious sense, from Al-Masjid Al-Haram. After the revelation of this Ayah, idolators were no longer allowed to go near the Masjid. This Ayah was revealed in the ninth year of Hijrah. The Messenger of Allah sent `Ali in the company of Abu Bakr that year to publicize to the idolators that no Mushrik will be allowed to perform Hajj after that year, nor a naked person allowed to perform Tawaf around the House. Allah completed this decree, made it a legislative ruling, as well as, a fact of reality. `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah commented on the Ayah 

<O you who believe! Verily, the Mushrikin are impure. So let them not come near Al-Masjid Al-Haram after this year> “Unless it was a servant or one of the people of Dhimmah.” Imam Abu `Amr Al-Awza’i said, “Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz wrote (to his governors) TO PREVENT JEWS AND CHRISTIANS FROM ENTERING THE MASJIDS OF MUSLIMS, AND HE FOLLOWED HIS ORDER WITH ALLAH’S STATEMENT 

<Verily, the Mushrikin are impure.>” `Ata’ said, “All of the Sacred Area [the Haram] is considered a Masjid, for Allah said… 

<So let them not come near Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) after this year.> This Ayah indicates that idolators are impure and that the believers are pure. In the Sahih is the following…

<<The believer does not become impure.>> Allah said…  

<and if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you, out of His bounty.> Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, “The people said, ‘Our markets will be closed, our commerce disrupted, and what we earned will vanish.’ So Allah revealed this verse…

<and if you fear poverty, Allah will enrich you, out of His bounty>, from other resources…

<if He wills>, until…

<… and feel themselves subdued.> This Ayah means, ‘this will be your compensation for the closed markets that you feared would result.’ Therefore, Allah compensated them for the losses they incurred because they severed ties with idolators, by the Jizyah they earned from the People of the Book.” Similar statements were reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak and others. Allah said…

<Surely, Allah is All-Knowing>, in what benefits you…

<All-Wise>, in His orders and prohibitions, for He is All-Perfect in His actions and statements, All-Just in His creations and decisions, Blessed and Hallowed be He. This is why Allah compensated Muslims for their losses by the amount of Jizyah that they took from the people of Dhimmah. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Q. 9:28

It wasn’t only to compensate Muslims for any losses suffered by the abolishment of idolatry in Arabia, especially at the kabah, but also for the humiliation and degradation of Jews and Christians:

Paying Jizyah is a Sign of Kufr AND DISGRACE

Allah said… 

<until they pay the Jizyah>, if they do not choose to embrace Islam…

<with willing submission>, in defeat and subservience…

<and feel themselves subdued.>, DISGRACED, HUMILIATED AND BELITTLED. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to honor the people of Dhimmah or elevate them above Muslims, FOR THEY ARE MISERABLE, DISGRACED AND HUMILIATED. Muslim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said… 

<<Do not initiate the Salam to the Jews and Christians, and if you meet any of them in a road, FORCE THEM TO ITS NARROWEST ALLEY.>>

This is why the Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, demanded his well-known conditions be met by the Christians, THESE CONDITIONS THAT ENSURED THEIR CONTINUED HUMILIATION, DEGRADATION AND DISGRACE. The scholars of Hadith narrated from `Abdur-Rahman bin Ghanm Al-Ash`ari that he said, “I recorded for `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, the terms of the treaty of peace he conducted with the Christians of Ash-Sham:

‘In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This is a document to the servant of Allah `Umar, the Leader of the faithful, from the Christians of such and such city. When you (Muslims) came to us we requested safety for ourselves, children, property and followers of our religion.

We made a condition on ourselves that we will neither erect in our areas a monastery, church, or a sanctuary for a monk, nor restore any place of worship that needs restoration nor use any of them for the purpose of enmity against Muslims.

We will not prevent any Muslim from resting in our churches whether they come by day or night, and we will open the doors [of our houses of worship] for the wayfarer and passerby.

Those Muslims who come as guests, will enjoy boarding and food for three days.

We will not allow a spy against Muslims into our churches and homes or hide deceit [or betrayal] against Muslims.

We will not teach our children the Qur’an, publicize practices of Shirk, invite anyone to Shirk or prevent any of our fellows from embracing Islam, if they choose to do so.


We will not imitate their clothing, caps, turbans, sandals, hairstyles, speech, nicknames and title names, or ride on saddles, hang swords on the shoulders, collect weapons of any kind or carry these weapons.

We will not encrypt our stamps in Arabic, or sell liquor.

We will have the front of our hair cut, wear our customary clothes wherever we are, wear belts around our waist, refrain from erecting crosses on the outside of our churches and demonstrating them and our books in public in Muslim fairways and markets.

We will not sound the bells in our churches, except discretely, or raise our voices while reciting our holy books inside our churches in the presence of Muslims, nor raise our voices [with prayer] at our funerals, or light torches in funeral processions in the fairways of Muslims, or their markets.

We will not bury our dead next to Muslim dead, or buy servants who were captured by Muslims. We will be guides for Muslims and refrain from breaching their privacy in their homes.’

When I gave this document to `Umar, he added to it, `We will not beat any Muslim. These are the conditions that we set against ourselves and followers of our religion IN RETURN FOR SAFETY AND PROTECTION. If we break any of these promises that we set for your benefit against ourselves, then our Dhimmah (promise of protection) is broken and you are allowed to do with us what you are allowed of people of defiance and rebellion.’” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Q. 9:29; capital and underline emphasis ours)

Now as far as idolaters are concerned, the Muslim scripture ordered them to either convert to Islam or be murdered. There was no third option for them:

Freedom from obligation (is proclaimed) from Allah and His messenger toward those of the idolaters with whom ye made a treaty. Travel freely in the land four months, and know that ye cannot escape Allah and that Allah will confound the disbelievers (in His Guidance). And a proclamation from Allah and His messenger to all men on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage that Allah is free from obligation to the idolaters, and (so is) His messenger. So, if ye repent, it will be better for you; but if ye are averse, then know that ye cannot escape Allah. Give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom to those who disbelieve, Excepting those of the idolaters with whom ye (Muslims) have a treaty, and who have since abated nothing of your right nor have supported anyone against you. (As for these), fulfil their treaty to them till their term. Lo! Allah loveth those who keep their duty (unto Him). Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. And if anyone of the idolaters seeketh thy protection (O Muhammad), then protect him so that he may hear the Word of Allah, and afterward convey him to his place of safety. That is because they are a folk who know not. S. 9:1-6 Pickthall

This is where Muhammad’s inconsistency comes in. According to the Islamic tradition, the Persians who were also known as Magians were classified as idolaters, since they were not considered to be monotheists whom Allah had given a revealed scripture to. Note, for instance, what the following narration states:

Jami` at-Tirmidhi

Chapters on Tafsir

Narrated Sa’eed bin Jubair:

from Ibn ‘Abbas, regarding the saying of Allah, Most High: Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land (30:1-3)” he said: “Ghulibat wa Ghalabat (defeated and then victorious).” He said: “The idolaters wanted the Persians to be victorious over the Romans BECAUSE THEY TOO WERE PEOPLE WHO WORSHIPED IDOLS, while the Muslims wanted the Romans to be victorious over the Persians BECAUSE THEY WERE PEOPLE OF THE BOOK. This was mentioned to Abu Bakr, so Abu Bakr mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah and he said: ‘They will certainly prevail.’ Abu Bakr mentioned that to them, and they said: ‘Make a wager between us and you; if we win, we shall get this and that, and if you win, you shall get this or that.’ He made the term five years, but they (the Romans) were not victorious. They mentioned that to the Prophet and he said: “Why did you not make it less (than)” – He (one of the narrators said): I think he said: “ten?” He said: Sa’eed said: “Al-Bid’ is what is less than then” – he said: “Afterwards the Romans have been victorious.” He said: “That is what Allah Most High said: ‘Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated’ up to His saying: ‘And on the day, the believers will rejoice – with the help of Allah. He helps whom He wills (30:1-5).’ Sufyan said: “I heard that they were victorious over them on the Day of Badr.”

Grade: SAHIH (Darussalam)

English reference: Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3193

Arabic reference: Book 47, Hadith 3497 (; capital and underline emphasis ours)

And yet Muhammad still went ahead and took jizya from them!

Jami` at-Tirmidhi

21 The Book on Military Expeditions

(31) Chapter: About Taking The Jizyah From The Zoroastrians 

Narrated Bajalah:

That ‘Umar would not take the Jizyah from the Zoroastrians until ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Awf informed him that the Prophet took Jizyah from the Zoroastrians of Hajar.”

There is more dialogue in the Hadith than this. And this Hadith is Hasan Sahih.

Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)

Reference: Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1587

In-book reference: Book 21, Hadith 49

English translation: Vol. 3, Book 19, Hadith 1587 (; underline emphasis ours)

Jami` at-Tirmidhi

21 The Book on Military Expeditions

(31) Chapter: About Taking The Jizyah From The Zoroastrians

Narrated Malik : From Az-Zuhri, that Sa’ib bin Yazid said: “The Messenger of Allah took the Jizyah from the Zoroastrians of Bahrain, and ‘Umar took it in Persia, and ‘Uthman took it from the Persians.” I asked Muhammad about this, so he said: “It is: ‘Malik from Az-Zuhri from the Prophet.'”

Grade: Hasan (Darussalam)

Reference: Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1588

In-book reference: Book 21, Hadith 50

English translation: Vol. 3, Book 19, Hadith 1588 (; underline emphasis ours)

The following Muslim source also confirms that Muhammad took jizya from the Persians, despite admitting the fact that the Persians were no different than the Arab pagans, but were in fact worse than them in their disbelief and idolatry, since the Persians didn’t believe in one creator and were never given a book, like the Jews and Christians:

As for his guidance concerning immunity, he did not impose the jizya upon the disbelievers until Baraa’a had been revealed which was during the eighth year. Once the verse of the jizya was revealed, he took it from the Magians and the people of the book. He sent Mu’aadh to Yemen and granted the Jews immunity while imposing it, though he did not take it from the Jews of Khaybar. Consequently, some have been lead to believe that they were exempt. However, he fought them and made peace with them before the jizya was introduced. Thereafter, Allaah the glorified and most high ordered him to fight the people of the book until they gave the jizya, though the people of Khaybar were not included at the time due to the nature of their accord. However, when ‘Umar sent them to Syria, their accord changed and they were treated like other people of the book…

The jizya was not introduced until the year of Tabook which was three years after Khaybar…

When the verse of the jizya was revealed, he took it from the Jews, Christians, and Magians, but he did not take it from idolaters. Consequently, it has been said that it may only be taken from these three groups. However, it has also been said that it may be taken from the people of the book and other disbelievers such as non-Arab idolaters.

The first view has been held by Ash Shaafi’ee and Ahmad according to one narration, and the second view has been held by Aboo Haneefa and Ahmad according to another narration.

Those who maintain the first position say: rather, he did not take the jizya from Arab polytheists, because it was introduced after the conquest of Makka when the Arabs accepted Islaam en masse. For this reason, he attacked Tabook afterward, because they were Christian. However, if Arab polytheists remained, it would be more appropriate that they be fought instead.

If one considers the prophetic biography, he will realize that this is true. The jizya was not taken because there was no one to take it from, not because a people were exempt. However, he did take the jizya from the Magians, though narrations which state that they were people of the book are unreliable.

There is no difference between fire worshippers and idolaters. In fact, the latter maintained some aspects of the religion of Ibraaheem unlike the former who were his enemy. Consequently, it would be more appropriate that the jizya be taken from the former instead of the latter, and the messenger of Allaah has said: (when you meet your enemy, give them three options, if they choose one, avoid them). Thereafter, he enjoined that they accept Islaam, the jizya, or war.

Al Mugheera has said: our prophet has commanded us to fight you until you worship Allaah or pay the jizya.

He agreed to a peace treaty with the Christians of Najran in return for 2, 000 garments, thirty coats of mail, thirty horses, thirty camels, and thirty of each type of weapon used during war.

When he sent Mu’aadh to Yemen, he commanded him to take one dinaar or the equivalent of fabric from every mature male. This proves that the jizya is unspecified in terms of type and quantity. Rather, it can be fabric, gold, or garments, and the quantity fluctuates according to the needs of the believers and the condition of those from whom it is taken.

He nor his successors differentiated between Arab and non-Arabs in terms of the Jizya. Rather, he took it from Arab Christians and Arab Magians, because the Arabs were a nation that did not have a book, and each faction practiced the religion of the nation which it was adjacent to. Consequently, the people of Bahrain were Magians since their neighbors were Persians, Banoo Taghlab were Christians since their neighbors were Romans, and some of the tribes of Yemen were Jewish since their neighbors were Jews. As a result, he imposed the jizya without considering when the forefathers of those previously mentioned had become people of the book. In fact, some of the children of the Ansaar accepted Judaism after it was abrogated by the law of ‘Eesa, and their fathers wished to impose Islaam upon them, thus Allaah the most high revealed the following: {there is no compulsion in religion} [Al Baqara/256]…

The prophet took the jizya mostly from Arab Jews, Christians, and Magians, though he did not investigate when any of them accepted his religion. (Zad-ul Ma’ad Fi Hadyi Khairi-L Ibad (Provisions for the Afterlife Which Lie Within Prophetic Guidance), by Imam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (691-751 H), Translated by Ismail Abdus Salaam, pp. 304-306; bold emphasis ours)


It has already been mentioned that the prophet began his mission without fighting or imposing the jizya. He remained as such for more than a decade while in Makka, he was then granted permission to wage war once he migrated to Al Madeena. Thereafter, he was commanded to retaliate and to avoid those who were peaceful. Once Baraa’a was revealed in the eighth year, he was commanded to fight Arabs who had not accepted Islaam and had not engaged in a peace agreement. However, he was not commanded to impose the jizya. In fact, he fought the Jews numerous times without doing so.

He was then commanded to fight the people of the book until they accepted Islaam or the jizya. As a result, he imposed the jizya from Arab Jews and Christians as well as Magians. Since he did not impose the jizya upon Arab polytheists. Ash Shaafi’ee and Ahmad have said: the jizya is only imposed upon the Jews, Christians, and Magians.

The Magians are polytheists without a book, so the fact that the jizya was imposed upon them proves that it could be imposed upon all polytheists. However, the prophet did not impose the jizya upon Arab idolaters, though he could not do so since they accepted Islaam before the verse of jizya was revealed. For this reason, he did not impose the jizya upon the Jews who waged war against him.

The disbelief of the Magians was of greater magnitude than the disbelief of the idolaters. In fact, the idolaters acknowledged the lordship of Allaah. They were also aware that he is the only creator, but they worshiped other deities upon the pretense that they brought them closer to Allaah. Nevertheless, they did not believe that one creator is the source of good while another creator is the source of evil as the Magians believe. In addition, they did not allow one to marry his daughter, sister, or mother. In fact, they maintained some aspects of the religion of Ibraaheem.

As for the Magians, they did not have a book nor a prophetic religion. As for the narration which states that they lost their book and their law when their king had sex with his daughter, it is absolutely unreliable. However, even if it were reliable, the Magians could not be considered people of the book.

It is well known that the Arabs followed the religion of Ibraaheem who had a book and a law, and the idolaters could not have altered their religion more than the Magians. However, it is not known that the Magians observed any form of prophetic law. As a result, the Magians whose religion was the worst could not be considered better than Arab polytheists.

Some have said: the jizya is imposed upon every disbeliever except Arab polytheists.

Others have excluded the tribe of Quraysh which is meaningless, because no disbelievers remained, hence there was no one to impose the jizya upon. In reality, the prophet invited all Arabs to accept Islaam or the jizya. (Ibid., pp. 717-718; bold emphasis ours)

This again illustrates Muhammad’s hypocrisy and inconsistency, as well as his lust for power and money. Muhammad did not hesitate to break his own commandments, which he claimed were sent down by his god, and/or abrogate them if doing so would help him attain the power, fame and lustful pleasures he so anxiously craved after.

It is rather obvious that for Muhammad, getting rich and satisfying his lustful desires were more important than remaining consistent with the very message that he claimed came from the lord of the worlds.

Further Reading

Muhammad’s Inconsistency (



Jesus is the Eternal Father but He is not God the Father!

The following verse is typically misused to refute the doctrine of the Trinity:

“For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder. And his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father (Abi Ad), Prince of Peace.” Isaiah 9:6 Modern English Version (MEV)

Oneness modalist heretics use this passage to prove that Jesus is the human manifestation of God the Father since this prophecy explicitly calls the Messiah the Eternal Father. Muslims, on the other hand, employ this text to show that this cannot be a prophecy of the Messiah since Trinitarians do not believe that Jesus is God the Father, and therefore cannot appeal to it as a prooftext for Christ’s divinity.

The problem with both of these objections lies in their understanding of the particular Hebrew phrase in question. The literal rendering of the expression Abi Ad is “Father of Eternity/Everlastingness,” just as we find in the following English versions:

“… and he will be given the name Pele-Yo‘etz El Gibbor Avi-‘Ad Sar-Shalom [Wonder of a Counselor, Mighty God, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace],” Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)

“… and his name is called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace.” DARBY

To better understand what this expression means in reference to the Messiah it would be helpful to see how the word Ad is employed elsewhere in Isaiah:

“For thus says the High and Lofty One (ram wa’nissawho inhabits eternity (shoken ad), whose name is Holy: I dwell in the high and holy place and also with him who is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones.” Isaiah 57:15 MEV(1)

In this text, Yahweh is said to inhabit or dwell in eternity, which is simply another way of saying that Yahweh is eternal by nature. And because he is eternal, Yahweh lives forever and ever. This understanding of the term is reflected in the following translations:

“For the High and Exalted One, who lives forever…” Christian Standard Bible (CSB)

“The one who is high and lifted up, who lives forever…” Common English Bible (CEB)

“For thus says the High, Exalted One who lives forever…” CJB

“Our holy God lives forever in the highest heavens…” Contemporary English Version (CEV)

“God is high and lifted up. He lives forever…” Easy-To-Read Version (ERV)

“And this is the reason: God lives forever and is holy. He is high and lifted up [exalted]…” Expanded Bible (EXB)

“The High and Lofty One lives forever…” GOD’S Word Translation (GW)

“I am the high and holy God, who lives forever…” Good News Translation (GNW)

God lives forever and is holy…” International Children’s Bible (ICB)

“For thus says the high and lofty one who resides forever…” Lexham English Bible (LEB)

“The High and Lofty One lives forever…” Names of God Bible (NOG)

“For thus says the high and lofty One, the One who dwells forever…” New American Bible Revised Edition (NABRE)

“For thus says the high and exalted One Who lives forever…” New American Standard Version (NASB)

“And this is the reason: God lives forever…” New Century Version (NCV)

“For this is what the high and exalted one says, the one who rules forever…” New English Translation (NET)

“The God who is highly honored lives forever…” New International Reader’s Version (NIRV)

“For this is what the high and exalted One says— he who lives forever…” NIV (New International Version)

“for thus says the High and Exalted One who lives eternally…” New Jerusalem Bible (NJB)

“For the high and honored One Who lives forever…” New Life Version (NLV)

“For this is what the High and Lofty One says, Who lives forever…” New World Translation (NWT)

“For thus saith the High and Exalted, Shokhen Ad (the One Who abideth forever, i.e., the Shekhinah)…” Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB)

“For the Lord high, and enhanced, saith these things, that dwelleth in everlastingness…” Wycliffe (WYC)

With the foregoing in perspective, we can now better appreciate the point of the Messiah being the Father of Eternity/Everlastingness.

Since the Hebrew term for father can mean source/possessor/originator/author/progenitor etc., as any lexical source will easily confirm (, this expression, therefore, conveys the fact that the Messiah is the possessor and source of eternity/everlastingness. Note how the following versions render the phrase:

“For unto us a yeled is born, unto us ben is given; and the misrah (dominion) shall be upon his shoulder; and Shmo shall be called Peleh (Wonderful), Yoetz (Counsellor), El Gibbor (Mighty G-d), Avi Ad (Possessor of Eternity), Sar Shalom (Prince of Peace).” OJB

“… His Name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God My Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace.” Tree of Life Version (TLV)

“… And He doth call his name Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace.” Young’s Literal Translation (YLT)

As such, the title is meant to convey the point of the Messiah being the One from whom eternity or everlasting life originates since he himself is Life and the Source of eternal life, which is precisely what the NT teaches about Christ:

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were created through Him, and without Him nothing was created that was created. IN HIM WAS LIFE, and the life was the light of mankind… The true Light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world. He was in the world, and the world was created through Him, yet the world did not know Him.” John 1:1-4, 9-10 MEV

“For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son gives life to whom He will… Truly, truly I say to you, the hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in Himself, so He has given to the Son to have life in Himself… Do not marvel at this. For the hour is coming in which all who are in the graves will hear His voice and come out—those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment.” John 5:21, 25-26, 28-29 MEV

“Jesus said to them, ‘I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to Me shall never hunger, and whoever believes in Me shall never thirst. But I told you that you have seen Me, and yet do not believe. All whom the Father gives Me will come to Me, and he who comes to Me I will never cast out. For I came down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me. This is the will of the Father who has sent Me, that of all whom He has given Me, I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. This is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.’ The Jews then murmured about Him, because He said, ‘I am the bread which came down from heaven.’ They said, ‘Is this not Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How is it then that He says, “I have come down from heaven”?’ Jesus therefore answered them, ‘Do not murmur among yourselves. No one can come to Me unless the Father who has sent Me draws him. And I will raise him up on the last day… Truly, truly I say to you, whoever believes in Me has eternal life… Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life. And I will raise him up on the last day… As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever feeds on Me also will live BECAUSE OF ME.’” John 6:35-44, 47, 54, 57 MEV

“Jesus said to her, ‘I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, yet shall he live. And whoever lives and believes in Me shall never die. Do you believe this?’ She said to Him, ‘Yes, Lord, I believe that You are the Christ, the Son of God, who is to come into the world.’” John 11:25-27 MEV

“Jesus said to him, ‘I am the way, the truth, and THE LIFE. No one comes to the Father except through Me.’” John 14:6 MEV

“and you killed the Creator of Life, whom God has raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.” Acts 3:15 MEV

“For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they are thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers. All things were created by Him and for Him. He is before all things, and IN HIM all things hold together.” Colossians 1:16-17 MEV

“For you are dead, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ who is our life shall appear, then you also shall appear with Him in glory.” Colossians 3:3-4 MEV

“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have touched, concerning the Word of life— the life was revealed, and we have seen it and testify to it, and announce to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and was revealed to us—we declare to you that which we have seen and heard, that you also may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ.” 1 John 1:1-3 MEV 

The foregoing helps us understand why the Messiah is called the Father of Eternity/Everlastingness. The Messiah is the Mighty God who is the Source/Possessor of eternal life and is, therefore, the One who grants life, in fact, eternal life, to all those who would believe in him.(2)

In other words, the phrase does not mean that the Messiah is God the Father, but that he is the Son who is one with the Father in essence, and therefore one with him in being able to grant immortal life to all who come to love and trust him:

“My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me. I give them eternal life. They shall never perish, nor shall anyone snatch them from My hand. My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all. No one is able to snatch them from My Father’s hand. My Father and I are one.” John 10:27-30

Hence, the prophecy of Isaiah provides absolutely no solace for those seeking to undermine the Trinity and/or to establish Jesus’ identity as God the Father. A careful and accurate understanding of this text within its immediate and overall contexts actually confirms that Jesus is God Almighty in the flesh, the Creator and Sustainer of all things, who is personally distinct from both the Father and the Holy Spirit.

Further Reading 

Jesus Christ – The Mighty God: More OT Evidence for the Deity of the Messiah (


(1) It is rather interesting that the prophet employs this same pair of words, i.e. “the High and Lofty One,” to describe the Messiah’s exaltation after offering up his life as a vicarious sacrifice for the sins of the nations:

“Behold, my servant shall act wisely; he shall be high and lifted up (yarum wa’nissa), and shall be exalted. As many were astonished at you—his appearance was so marred, beyond human semblance, and his form beyond that of the children of mankind—so shall he sprinkle many nations. Kings shall shut their mouths because of him, for that which has not been told them they see, and that which they have not heard they understand.” Isaiah 52:13-15 English Standard Version (ESV)

Isaiah also uses these very words in narrating the vision he had where he saw Yahweh visibly seated upon his glorious throne:

“In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up (ram wa’nissa); and the train of his robe filled the temple. Above him stood the seraphim. Each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. And one called to another and said: ‘Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory!’ And the foundations of the thresholds shook at the voice of him who called, and the house was filled with smoke. And I said: ‘Woe is me! For I am lost; for I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; for my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts!’” Isaiah 6:1-5 ESV – cf. 33:5, 10

What this shows is that God will exalt his messianic Servant to sit upon God’s very own throne in order to share in God’s unique sovereignty over all creation.

(2) Other versions understand the expression to imply either that the Messiah is a Father who lives forever,

“… His name will be “Wonderful Counselor, Powerful God, Father Who Lives Forever, Prince of Peace.”

“… His name will be Wonderful Counselor [or Wonderful! Counselor!; or Extraordinary Advisor], Powerful [Mighty] God, Father Who Lives Forever [Eternal Father], Prince of Peace.” EXB

“… His name will be Wonderful Counselor, Powerful God, Father Who Lives Forever, Prince of Peace.” ICB

“… His name will be Wonderful Counselor, Powerful God, Father Who Lives Forever, Prince of Peace.” NCV

“… He will also be called Father Who Lives Forever and Prince Who Brings Peace.” NIRV

“… His name will be called Wonderful, Teacher, Powerful God, Father Who Lives Forever, Prince of Peace.” NLV

Or is a Father forever,

“… They name him Wonder-Counselor, God-Hero, Father-Forever, Prince of Peace.” NABRE

Again, these translations do not equate Jesus with God the Father. Rather, these renderings merely imply that Jesus is the One who provides for his people, since he always lives to sustain them. After all, the term father is used in this sense in reference to Eliakim who was entrusted with the care and oversight of the Davidic dynasty and the people of Israel:

“In that day I will call My servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah. And I will clothe him with your robe and tie him securely with your sash. And I will entrust him with your authority, and he shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah. The key of the house of David I will lay on his shoulder. Then he shall open, and no one shall shut. And he shall shut, and no one shall open.” Isaiah 22:20-22 MEV

And since Jesus is the heir of the Davidic throne and who in fact has possession to the key of the house of David,

To the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: ‘He who is holy, He who is true, He who has the key of David, He who opens and no one shuts, and shuts and no one opens, says these things:’” Revelation 3:7

It would, therefore, only make sense that he too would be described as a father in this manner.

Still, other versions translate the phrase to mean that the Messiah is the Father of the world to come, i.e. of the new heavens and earth:

“… and his name shall be called, Wonderful, Counsellor, God the Mighty, the Father of the world to come, the Prince of Peace.” Douay-Rheims 1899 American Edition (DRA)

“… and his name shall be called… Father of the world to coming… Father of the world to come…” WYC

This manner of translating the expression still doesn’t end up provin that the Messiah is God the Father. It only confirms that the Messiah is a father in the sense of being the One who ushers in, i.e. creates, the age to come and who personally sustains it forever and ever:

“because he who is blessed in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth; and he who swears in the earth shall swear by the God of truth; because the former troubles are forgotten and because they are hidden from My eyes. For I create new heavens and a new earth; the former things shall not be remembered or come to mind.” Isaiah 65:16-17 MEV

“in these last days did speak to us in a Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He did make the ages; who being the brightness of the glory, and the impress of His subsistence, bearing up also the all things by the saying of his might — through himself having made a cleansing of our sins, sat down at the right hand of the greatness in the highest,” Hebrews 1:2-3 YLT



Jesus as God in the Gospel of Mark: Addressing a Common Muslim Objection

In this post, I am going to show how Jesus in Mark’s Gospel claims to be God (though not the Father) by ascribing to himself the very functions, titles, and attributes, which the Quran itself confirms belong only to God. I do so because Muslims are fond of arguing that it is only in John’s Gospel that Jesus ascribes divinity to himself, since the earlier Gospels, specifically Mark, portray Christ as a supernaturally empowered agent of God, but not God incarnate. I will refute this assertion by showing that the Jesus of Mark’s Gospel does, in fact, describe himself as the unique divine Son of God who is essentially one with the Father.

The Omniscient Forgiver

The Quran testifies that Allah is the only one who can forgive sins,

who, when they commit an indecency or wrong themselves, remember God, and pray forgiveness for their sins — and who shall forgive sins but God? — and do not persevere in the things they did and that wittingly. S. 3:135

And who knows the thoughts within the breasts(hearts) of men:

Behold, they fold their breasts, to hide them from Him; behold, when they wrap themselves in their garments He knows what they secrete and what they publish; surely He knows all the thoughts within the breasts. S. 11:5

This is why Islamic theology gives Allah the names “The All-Knowing” and “The Ever-Forgiving/All-Pardoning One”:

Al-‘Âlim, Al-‘Alîm, Al-‘Allâm: The All-Knowing

The Knower. He who knows what has been and what will be, who ever has known and ever will know what has been and what will be, from whom nothing is concealed in the earth nor in the heaven, whose knowledge comprehends all things in the most complete manner. His knowledge is timeless and essential.

Al-‘Alim is one of the Ninety-Nine Names…

Al-Ghâfir, Al-Ghafûr; Al-Ghaffar: The Forgiving, The Ever-Forgiving,
The Endlessly Forgiving

Al-Ghafir who pardons a particular sin; Al-Ghafur who is in the habit of forgiving sins and covering them up; Al-Ghaffar is the One who does not cease to pardon them, one after the other. Ghafr, in the root, means to cover, veil, so to make hidden (unlike ‘afw, to efface), not to punish, to cause them to be undisclosed. The One who covers and forgives the sins of His servants.

Al-Ghafur and Al-Ghaffur are two of the Ninety-Nine Names… 

Al-‘Afuw: The All-Pardoning

He who makes disappear, effaces; also has the meaning of fadl, superfluous and so it is resembles Al-Wahhab and Al-Jawad. He forgives much. He passes over wrong actions and pardons faults. More far-reaching than Al-Ghafur, which is veiling. ‘Afw is effacing.

Al-‘Afuw is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. (Aisha Bewley, Divine Names

And yet in Mark’s Gospel, Jesus has the power to forgive all sins, heal all diseases and even knows the innermost thoughts of the hearts of men:

And again he entered into Capernaum after some days; and it was noised that he was in the house. And straightway many were gathered together, insomuch that there was no room to receive them, no, not so much as about the door: and he preached the word unto them. And they come unto him, bringing one sick of the palsy, which was borne of four. And when they could not come nigh unto him for the press, they uncovered the roof where he was: and when they had broken it up, they let down the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay. When Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee. But there were certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts, Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive sins but God only? And immediately when Jesus perceived in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, he said unto them, Why reason ye these things in your hearts? Whether is it easier to say to the sick of the palsy, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and take up thy bed, and walk? But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (he saith to the sick of the palsy,) I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy bed, and go thy way into thine house. And immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went forth before them all; insomuch that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, We never saw it on this fashion.” Mark 2:1-12

Astonishingly, not only does Jesus know and do what the Quran says only Allah can know or do, but he also possesses the very same characteristics and performs the exact same functions, which the Hebrew Bible ascribe to Jehovah God alone!

“then hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place, and forgive, and do, and give to every man according to his ways, whose heart thou knowest; (for thou, even thou only, knowest the hearts of all the children of men;)” 1 Kings 8:39

“shall not God search this out? for he knoweth the secrets of the heart.” Psalm 44:21

“Bless the LORD, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits: who forgiveth all thine iniquities; who healeth all thy diseases; who redeemeth thy life from destruction; who crowneth thee with lovingkindness and tender mercies;” Psalm 103:2-4

Christ even redeems human lives from destruction, just like Jehovah does!

“For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.” Mark 10:45

And the reason is plainly obvious, namely, Jesus is Jehovah God in the flesh even though he is not the Father or the Holy Spirit.

The Divine Heir

The Quran states that Allah is the heir of the heavens and earth, the one who inherits everything in creation:

But as for those who are niggardly with the bounty God has given them, let them not suppose it is better for them; nay, it is worse for them; that they were niggardly with they shall have hung about their necks on the Resurrection Day; and to God belongs the inheritance of the heavens and earth; and God is aware of the things you do. S. 3:180

It is We who give life, and make to die, and it is We who are the inheritors. S. 15:23 Arberry

Surely We shall inherit the earth and all that are upon it, and unto Us they shall be returned. S. 19:40 Arberry – cf. Q. 19:80

Allah is even called the best of those who receive an inheritance!

And (remember) Zakariya, when he cried to his Lord: “O my Lord! leave me not without offspring, though thou art the best of inheritors.” S. 21:89 Y. Ali

In fact, one of the so-called beautiful names of Allah is al-Warith, which means “the Inheritor”:

Al-Wârith: The Inheritor

The One who inherits and continues after all others have ceased to be; thus all returns to Him. He is the true owner of all.

Al-Warith is one of the Ninety-Nine Names. (Bewley, Divine Names)

Jesus, however, claims to be the unique beloved Son and Heir of God, who is greater than all the prophets:

“And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country. And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard. And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty. And again he sent unto them another servant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled. And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some. Having yet therefore one son, his wellbeloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son. But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours. And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others. And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner: this was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes? And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people: for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way.” Mark 12:1-12

In the parable, the owner represents God, the vineyard is Israel, and the vinedressers are the religious establishment. The servants whom God sent are supposed to be the prophets:

“Since the day that your fathers came forth out of the land of Egypt unto this day I have even sent unto you all my servants the prophets, daily rising up early and sending them:” Jeremiah 7:25 – cf. 26:5; 29:19; 44:4

“And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.” Revelation 11:18

Not only does Jesus distinguish himself from the prophets who are mere servants, but he also claims to be the Heir, being the One who owns everything that belongs to God. And since Israel, the prophets and all of the creation belong to God, this means that the entire creation, including the prophets, belong to Christ as his very own possession!

Mark isn’t the only inspired writer to confirm that Jesus is the divine Heir of all creation, who owns everything that the Father has and possesses:

“And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.” Matthew 28:18

All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the Son is, but the Father; and who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him.” Luke 10:22

All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you.” John 16:15

And all mine are thine, and thine are mine; and I am glorified in them.” John 17:10

“who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature: for by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and FOR HIM: and he is before all things, and by him all things consist.” Colossians 1:15-17

“hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;” Hebrews 1:2

The Lord of All

The Islamic scripture depicts Allah as the sovereign Lord of all beings, meaning all creation,

Praise belongs to God, the Lord of all Being, S. 1:2

Who does not permit there being any other lord besides him, especially from among the angels and prophets:

It belongs not to any mortal that God should give him the Book, the Judgment, the Prophethood, then he should say to men, ‘Be you servants to me apart from God.’ Rather, ‘Be you masters in that you know the Book, and in that you study.’ He would never order you to take the angels and the Prophets as Lords; what, would He order you to disbelieve, after you have surrendered? S. 3:79-80

That is why the Quran adamantly proclaims that Allah does not allow anyone to share in his sovereign rule over all creation:

Say: ‘God knows very well how long they tarried. To Him belongs the Unseen in the heavens and in the earth. How well He sees! How well He hears! They have no protector, apart from Him, and He associates in His government no one.’ S. 18:26

to whom belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth; and He has not taken to Him a son, and He has no associate in the Kingdom; and He created every thing, then He ordained it very exactly. S. 25:2 – cf. 17:111

This is also the reason that Islamic theology teaches that the title “the Lord” is one of the unique names of Allah, which cannot be ascribed to anyone else:

Ar-Rabb: The Lord

Lord: master, owner; chief; the Cherisher, the one who takes care of a thing. Ar-Rabb is the one who puts right, manages, compels and guards. He is the One worshipped. Some scholars say that the name is the greatest name of Allah because of the great number of those who make supplication using it. It reflects the true relationship of a person with his Lord, containing both mastery and kindness, concern, and nurture. (Bewley, Divine Names)

And yet Christ claims to be the one Lord whom David worshiped and who sits enthroned with God over all creation:

“And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all? And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord (Kyrios ho Theos hemon Kyrios heis estin): and thou shalt love the Lord thy God (Kyrion ton Theon sou) with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these. And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he: and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices. And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question. And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the Son of David? For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The Lord said to my Lord (Eipen Kyrios to Kyrio mou), Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool. David therefore himself calleth him Lord (Kyrion); and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly.” Mark 12:28-37

After quoting Deuteronomy 6:4, which affirms that Israel’s God is the one Lord whom they are to wholeheartedly worship, Christ then quotes the prophet David to show that the Messiah is included within the identity and Being of Israel’s one Lord!

Here’s the passage that our Lord cited:

“The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.” Psalm 110:1

According to the Psalms, Jehovah sits enthroned in the heavens above and is the “place” from where he rules over all beings:

He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.” Psalm 2:4

“The LORD is in his holy temple, the LORD’s throne is in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men.” Psalm 11:4

“The LORD hath prepared his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all.” Psalm 103:19

Since the Messiah is seated at the right hand of Jehovah he must, therefore, be ruling from God’s own heavenly throne as the sovereign Lord of all creation.

This also means that the Holy Spirit had revealed to the prophet David that the Messiah is the one Lord of Israel who reigns over all creation from heaven itself. There’s simply no way around this revealed truth.

Once again, Mark isn’t the only one to speak of the Messiah’s heavenly enthronement as the sovereign Lord of all creation:

“Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am. If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another’s feet.” John 13:13-14

“Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews? Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me? Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done? Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence. Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.” John 18:33-37

For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thy foes thy footstool. Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ.” Acts 2:33-36 – Cf. 5:31

“The word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ: (he is Lord of all:)… And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead.” Acts 10:36, 42

“For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.” Romans 14:9 – Cf. Romans 8:34

“but to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.” 1 Corinthians 8:6 – Cf. 15:24-28

“and what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, FAR ABOVE all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: and hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church, which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.” Ephesians 1:19-23

“For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all principality and power… If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. Colossians 2:9-10, 3:1

“who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high… But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?” Hebrews 1:3, 13

“who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.” 1 Peter 3:22

“And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him:” Revelation 22:1-3

This brings me to my final point.

The Cloud Rider and the Judge of All

The Muslim scripture mentions the belief of the Jews that Allah (or God) would come on judgment day in the shadows of a cloud along with his angels:

What do they look for, but that God shall come to them in the cloud — shadows, and the angels? The matter is determined, and unto God all matters are returned. S. 2:210

The Quran itself testifies that Muhammad’s lord is coming with his angels to judge the earth:

No indeed! When the earth is ground to powder, and thy Lord comes, and the angels rank on rank, and Gehenna is brought out, upon that day man will remember; and how shall the Reminder be for him? S. 89:21-23

According to Mark, however, Jesus is the Son of Man who comes in the clouds of heaven along with his angels to judge the wicked and save his elect:

“And then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory. And then shall he send HIS angels, and shall gather together HIS elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven.” Mark 13:26-27

“But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.” Mark 14:61-62

Our Lord was identifying himself as the same divine figure that the prophet Daniel saw and wrote of:

“I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.” Daniel 7:13-14

The Being that Daniel beheld is an eternal king with an indestructible kingdom whom all the nations must worship in the same way that God is to be worshiped:

“And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.” Daniel 7:27

What this shows is that the Son of Man whom Daniel wrote of is actually a divine Being appearing in human semblance. As such, by identifying himself with that figure, Christ was claiming to be God in human flesh, since he is the eternal King of all creation whom all nations must worship forever and ever.

Our Lord’s testimony in Mark is, therefore, crystal clear. Christ is Jehovah God incarnate, being the unique divine Son of God, who is equal to the Father in glory, power, and majesty.

So much for the Muslim objection.

Quranic citations are from Arthur J. Arberry.

All scriptural quotations are taken from the Authorized King James Version (AV) of the Holy Bible.