Saturday, 28 February 2015

Reexamining the Quran’s Distortion and Misrepresention of Historic Christian Beliefs

Sam Shamoun          

Bassam Zawadi has taken a stab at refuting my article which examines and documents the Quran’s gross distortion of what true Christians have historically believed regarding the Trinity and Jesus’ relationship to the Father.

In my article I had quoted Christian scholar E.M. Wherry regarding the fact that even Muslim expositors such as Baidhawi, Jalaluddin, and Yahya admit that Q. 4:171 claims that Christians worship three gods consisting of God, Mary and Jesus. Here is how Zawadi responds:

Jalaluddin was talking about a specific Christian sect and not speaking generally about all Christians. I checked the commentary on Baidhawi on 5:73 (
*,*) and no where is the name "Mary" even mentioned. I don't know how E.M. Wherry reached this conclusion regarding Baidhawi.

Sorry to keep sounding like a broken record but this again substantiates my claim that Zawadi has a difficult time comprehending what he reads. Wherry was quoting al-Baidawi’s comments to Q. 4:171, not his explanation of Q. 5:73!

Moreover, if Zawadi wants to argue that these passages are addressing only a specific Christian sect, and not all Christians, then he is simply confirming my point that the Quran nowhere defines and refutes the historic, orthodox Christian doctrine of the blessed and glorious Trinity.

Zawadi goes on to say:
The Qur'an said "third of three" and that is all. It does not say anything else. So it is possible that it is saying "don't say that God is the third of three persons in the Godhead". No where does it say "third of three Gods". "Third of three" simply means what
Baidhawi, Suyuti and Qurtubi said it means: "He is one of them".

I have already addressed this assertion in my response to Dr. Jerald F. Dirks and have proven that the Arabic does not simply mean that Allah “is one of them.” It literally means that Allah is the third among the three, that he comes third in the order of these three, and that this either presupposes that Christians worship three gods, namely God, Mary and Jesus, or that they believe that the Father holds the third position within the Trinity, neither of which accurately represents the view which has been historically held by the Church at large.

Zawadi then asks,

How does Shamoun know that the Qur'an isn't condemning Sabellianism? How does Shamoun know that the Qur'an isn't condemning people like William Blake? Northrop Frye said:

The reason I know that it isn’t condemning Sabellianism is because, a) that heresy had already been condemned centuries prior to the birth of Muhammad and was not a threat during his time, and b) the Quran goes on to censure those who say that Allah is the third of three within the very immediate context of saying that Allah is Christ:

Certainly they disbelieve who say: Surely Allah, He is the Messiah, son of Marium; and the Messiah said: O Children of Israel! serve Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Surely whoever associates (others) with Allah, then Allah has forbidden to him the garden, and his abode is the fire; and there shall be no helpers for the unjust. Certainly they disbelieve who say: Surely Allah is the third (person) of the three; and there is no god but the one God, and if they desist not from what they say, a painful chastisement shall befall those among them who disbelieve. S. 5:72-73 Shakir

The Sabellian heresy did not hold to the belief that Allah or God is the third of three since in their view God is a single Person who manifests himself in three different ways. Therefore, the burden of proof is upon Zawadi to show that these texts are refuting the Sabellian heresy.

More importantly, if these Quranic citations are condemning Sabellianism then this once again shows that the Muslim scripture is not addressing the historic Christian view of the Lord Jesus Christ since orthodoxy denies that Jesus is the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit or that Christ is the human nature of the Father.

Zawadi gets rather ingenious since he pushes for the possibility that the Quran may be condemning the belief that Jesus is an attribute of God! In so doing Zawadi creates a host of problems for his beliefs.

It's also possible that the statement "God is Jesus" isn't a statement of identity, but a statement of predication (using William Lane Craig's terminology). Just as the statement "God is love" (1 John 4:10) does not intend to say that God is an entity called love, but rather has the attribute of love, similarly "God is Jesus" could mean to say that Jesus is an attribute of God.

Famed internet Christian apologist James Patrick Holding titles one of the subheadings in his article 
Jesus As God's Wisdom, and the Trinity Doctrine as (bold emphasis mine):

Jesus, as God's Word and Wisdom, was and is eternally an attribute of God the Father.

In case Shamoun objects, Holding insists:

It is not sufficient to object that because Jesus is a person, he cannot be an "attribute" of the Father. Personhood is not incompatible with being an attribute of another person. Moreover, we should not presume that our inability as humans to have a personal attribute also means that God cannot have one.

Hence, even orthodox Christians like Holding believe that Jesus is an attribute of God. Therefore, if someone has the intention of uttering a statement of predication stating "God is Jesus" then he is well within his bounds of stating so. What Shamoun needs to prove is that Allah's intention for saying "God is Jesus" isn't that of predication just like how Allah does in other verses (e.g. Allah is Merciful, that doesn't mean Allah is an entity called Mercy, but rather shares that attribute).

It is rather unfortunate that Zawadi could not see how this claim actually proves that the Quran is mistaken and contradicting itself. According to the Islamic scripture Jesus is Allah’s very own Word:

And the angels called to him, standing in the Sanctuary at worship, 'Lo, Allah gives thee good tidings of John, who shall confirm a Word from Allah (bi-kalimatin mina Allahi), a chief, and chaste, a Prophet, righteous.'… When the angels said, 'Mary, Allah gives thee good tidings of a Word from Him (bi-kalimatin minhu) whose name is Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary; high honoured shall he be in this world and the next, near stationed to Allah. 3:39, 45

People of the Book, go not beyond the bounds in your religion, and say not as to Allah but the truth. The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was the Messenger of Allah, and His Word (wa-kalimatuhu) that He committed to Mary, and a Spirit from Him (wa-roohun minhu). So believe in Allah and His Messengers, and say not, 'Three.' Refrain; better is it for you. Allah is only One God. Glory be to Him -- That He should have a son! To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth; Allah suffices for a guardian. S. 4:171

Here, the Quran refers to Jesus as Allah’s Word and Spirit in the same way it speaks of Allah’s mercy, light etc.

Then, even after that, ye turned away, and if it had not been for the grace of Allah and His mercy (wa-rahmatuhu) ye had been among the losers. S. 2:64

Their Lord doth give them glad tidings of a Mercy from Himself (bi-rahmatin minhu), of His good pleasure, and of gardens for them, wherein are delights that endure: S. 9:21

They desire to put out the light of Allah (noora Allahi) with their mouths, and Allah will not consent save to perfect His light (noorahu), though the unbelievers are averse. S. 9:32

As such, Allah is indeed Jesus much like Allah is indeed the light, truth, mercy/merciful etc., since Jesus is Allah’s Word! In fact, Jesus is even said to be a mercy from Allah!

And mention in the Book Mary when she withdrew from her people to an eastern place, and she took a veil apart from them; then We sent unto her Our Spirit that presented himself to her a man without fault. She said, 'I take refuge in the All-merciful from thee! If thou fearest Allah ... He said, 'I am but a messenger come from thy Lord, to give thee a boy most pure. She said, 'How shall I have a son whom no mortal has touched, neither have I been unchaste?' He said, 'Even so thy Lord has said: "Easy is that for Me; and that We may appoint him a sign unto men and a mercy from Us (wa rahmatan minna); it is a thing decreed."' S. 19:16-21

Thus, this logically means that the Quran is wrong for denying that Allah is Jesus by way of predication.

Notice the implications of Zawadi’s logic in light of the teachings of the Quran:
- Jesus is the Word of Allah in the sense of being his speech or self-revelation.
- Allah’s Word or speech is one of his eternal attributes.
- Jesus is, therefore, an eternal attribute of Allah.
- This means that Allah is Jesus by way of predication.
- Therefore, the Quran is wrong when it says that Allah is not Jesus since he certainly is!

This is similar to the Islamic position that the Quran is the uncreated speech or word of Allah,

Then when the Sacred Months (the 1st, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the Mushrikun (see V.2:105) wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and give Zakat, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And if anyone of the Mushrikun (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur'an), and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men who know not. S. 9:5-6 Hilali-Khan


33. The Qur'an is the word of Allah. It came from Him as speech without it being possible to say how. He sent it down on His Messenger as revelation. The believers accept it, as absolute truth. They are certain that it is, in truth, the word of Allah. It is not created as is the speech of human beings, and anyone who hears it and claims that it is human speech has become an unbeliever. Allah warns him and censures him and threatens him with Fire when He says, Exalted is He: "I will burn him in the Fire." (al-Muddaththir 74:26) When Allah threatens with the Fire those who say "This is just human speech" (74:25) we know for certain that it is the speech of the Creator of mankind and that it is totally unlike the speech of mankind

56. We do not argue about the Qur'an and we bear witness that it is the speech of the Lord of all the Worlds which the Trustworthy Spirit came down with and taught the most honoured of all the Messengers, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is the speech of Allah and no speech of any created being is comparable to it. We do not say that it was created and we do not go against the Congregation (jama`a) of the Muslims regarding it. (Gibril F. Haddad,
Imam al-Tahawi's beliefs of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a ('aqida tahawiyya); bold and underline emphasis ours)

This means that the Quran, just like Jesus, is an attribute of Allah and as such Allah is the Quran by way of predication:

- The Quran is the word or speech of Allah.
- Allah’s word or speech is one of his eternal attributes.
- The Quran is, therefore, an eternal attribute of Allah.
- This means that Allah is the Quran by way of predication.
- Moreover, if Allah is the Quran by way of predication seeing that it is the eternal speech of Allah then by the same reasoning Allah must also be Jesus since he is also Allah’s Word and therefore uncreated.

However, Zawadi objects to this logic since he claims that the Quran is not God and Allah is not identical to any of his attributes:

The Qur'an is the speech of Allah. Allah's speech is one of His attributes. Allah's attributes (e.g. knowledge, sight, speech, etc.) are part of His nature. Logically speaking then, if Allah is uncreated then that also means that His attributes are not created either…We say that Allah is one Lord and God who has several attributes. We don't say that Allah only has one attribute or that the Qur'an is God…Allah has several attributes that subsist in His nature. They are not distinct from Him in the sense that God could not be without these attributes, however they are distinct in the sense that the attribute is not Him. (E.g. I have feelings. My feelings are subsisted in my nature and being. So they can't be distinct from me in that I can't be separated from them and be who I am without them. However, that doesn't mean that I am my feelings.) …I already clarified that Allah is not His attribute, but one can refer to His attribute in order to refer to Him. Refer back to my example regarding Allah's Face. (
Is The Trinity Logically Coherent in Light of Biblical Teachings? Part 2: A Rebuttal to Sam Shamoun)

Zawadi is not alone here since Muslim scholars themselves objected to the Quran being Allah, even though they also spoke out against saying that it is other than Allah!

We confess that the Kuran is the speech of Allah, uncreated, His inspiration and revelation, not He, yet not other than He, but His real quality, written in the copies, recited by the tongues, preserved in the breasts, yet not residing there. The ink, the paper, the writing are created, for they are the work of men. The speech of Allah on the other hand is uncreated, for the writing and the letters and the words and the verses are manifestations of the Kuran for the sake of human needs. The speech of Allah on the other hand is self-existing, and its meaning is understood by means of these things. Whoso sayeth that the speech of Allah is created, he is an infidel regarding Allah, the Exalted, whom men serve, who is eternally the same, His speech being recited or written and retained in the heart, yet never dissociated from Him. (A. J. Wensinck, The Muslim Creed (Cambridge: The University Press, 1932) p. 127; taken from the Wasiyat Abi Hanifa; bold and underline emphasis ours)

The Muslims said the same thing regarding all of Allah’s attributes:

He has attributes from all eternity subsistent in His essence. They are not He nor are they other than He. And they are Knowledge and Power and Life and Might and Hearing and Seeing and Willing and Desiring and Doing and Creating and Sustaining. (Sa‘d al-Din al-Taftazani, A Commentary on the Creed of Islam, translated by E. E. Elder [Columbia University Press: New York, 1950], p. 49; bold and underline emphasis ours)

Yet this introduces additional problems since if Zawadi and these scholars are correct then the Quran is mistaken for identifying Allah with his attributes! In fact, the Muslim scripture even uses the exact same language to describe Allah and his attributes as it does when claiming that Christians are disbelievers for saying that Allah is Jesus!

Notice, once again, what the Quran says concerning the belief of Christians:

Indeed, they are disbelievers who say Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary (inna
Allaha huwa al-maseehu ibnu maryama). Say, `Who then has any power against Allah, if he desired to destroy the Messiah, son of Mary, and his mother and all those that are in the earth?' And to Allah belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth and what is between them. He creates what He pleases and Allah has power over all things. S. 5:17

Indeed, they are disbelievers who say Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary (inna
Allaha huwa al-maseehu ibnu maryama), whereas the Messiah himself said, `O Children of Israel, worship Allah who is my Lord and your Lord.' Surely, whoso associates partners with Allah, him has Allah forbidden Heaven, and the Fire will be his resort. And the wrongdoers shall have no helpers. S. 5:72

Now compare this with the following verses:

And to the three who were left behind, until the earth became strait to them notwithstanding its spaciousness and their souls were also straightened to them; and they knew it for certain that there was no refuge from Allah but in Him; then He turned to them (mercifully) that they might turn (to Him); surely Allah is the Oft-repenting, the Merciful (inna
Allaha huwa al-tawwabu al-raheemu). S. 9:118 – cf. 9:104

This is because Allah is the Truth (thalika bi-anna
Allaha huwa al-haqqu) and because He gives life to the dead and because He has power over all things. S. 22:6 – cf. 24:25

That is because Allah is the Truth (thalika bi-anna Allaha huwa al-haqqu)
, and that what they call upon besides Him -- that is the falsehood, and because Allah is the High, the Great (wa-anna
Allaha huwa al-aliyyu al-kabeeru). S. 22:62 – cf. 31:30

What is in the heavens and the earth is Allah's; surely Allah is the Self-sufficient, the Praised (inna
Allaha huwa al-ghaniyyu al-hameedu). S. 31:26

And Allah judges with the truth; and those whom they call upon besides Him cannot judge aught; surely Allah is the Hearing, the Seeing (inna
Allaha huwa al-sameeaau al-baseeru). S. 40:20

In other passages the Quran says that Allah is light, knowing or wise without using the exact same Arabic expression found in the above verses:

And were it not for Allah's grace (fadlu Allahi) upon you and His mercy (wa-rahmatuhu) -- and that Allah is Oft-repenting, Wise (Allaha tawwabun hakeemun)! S. 24:10

And were it not for Allah's grace (fadlu Allahi) on you and His mercy (wa-rahmatuhu), and that Allah is Compassionate, Merciful (Allaha raoofun raheemun). O you who believe! do not follow the footsteps of Satan, and whoever follows the footsteps of Satan, then surely he bids the doing of indecency and evil; and were it not for Allah's grace upon you and His mercy (wa-rahmatuhu), not one of you would have ever been pure, but Allah purifies whom He pleases; and Allah is Hearing, Knowing (wa-Allahu sameeaaun aleemun). S. 24:20-21

Allah is the Light (Allahu nooru) of the heavens and the earth
. The similitude of His light (noorihi) is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a glass. The glass is as it were a shining star. (This lamp is) kindled from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) though no fire touched it. Light upon light. Allah guideth unto His light (noorihi) whom He will. And Allah speaketh to mankind in allegories, for Allah is Knower of all things. S. 24:35

Thus, if it is wrong for Christians to say that Allah is Jesus then it is equally wrong for the Quran to say that Allah is the truth, light, hearing, seeing, the most high, the most merciful etc., since Allah is not any of his attributes according to Zawadi and the Islamic scholars.

However, if it is proper and acceptable to say that Allah is mercy or merciful than it is also appropriate to assert that Allah is Jesus (or even the Quran) seeing that Christ is his eternal attribute or Word!

Zawadi’s problems are far from over. According to the above Muslim sources even though Allah’s attributes are not Allah they are not other than him (whatever that means!).

Moreover, noted Muslim expositor Al-Baidawi said concerning Q. 3:39 that Jesus is called the Word of Allah because “he is like the Book of Allah,” i.e. like the Quran.

Therefore, since Jesus is like the Quran in that he is also Allah’s uncreated Word this means that a Muslim is forbidden from saying that Christ is someone or something other than Allah!

With the said one can legitimately interpret passages such as Q. 5:17 and 72 to mean that it is incorrect to say that Allah is Jesus, much like it is incorrect to say that Allah is the Quran, since there is more to Allah than either Jesus or the Quran. However, it is also incorrect to say that Allah is not Jesus much like it is incorrect to say that he is not the Quran since he is both Jesus and the Quran by way of predication.

We can therefore imagine the Quran saying something similar about itself as it does of Jesus:
“They are disbelievers who say that Allah is the Quran, the Word transmitted through Muhammad. For thus says the Quran, ‘Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, the poor, the neighbour who is near of kin, the neighbour who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet), and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud and boastful’ [cf. Q. 4:36].”

Allah is not the Quran anymore than he is Jesus and to say otherwise is to commit an act of kufr or unbelief.

Will Zawadi be comfortable with all the problems that he has created for himself by arguing that the Quran may be denying that Allah is Jesus by way of predication? And will he be willing to accept the logical ramifications that his very own argument has on his beliefs concerning the relationship between Allah and his attributes such as the Quran? We highly doubt it.

For more on the topic of Jesus as the Word of Allah we recommend the following articles and rebuttals:

Zawadi then mentions the comments of noted Muslim commentator Ar-Razi but doesn’t see how this scholar’s explanation backfires against him:

One may also refer to Imam Fakhr Al Din Ar-Razi's
commentary on Surah 5:17 where he tries to argue philosophically that the orthodox Christian belief "Jesus is God" and the concept of the incarnation itself implies that "God is Jesus" whether Christians themselves like to acknowledge that or not.

Zawadi is again raising further difficulties for himself by failing to see how Ar-Razi’s comments actually confirm my point since his statements clearly show that even back then Christians had a problem with and objected to the Quran’s formulation of their beliefs. Here is what this renowned exegete of the Quran wrote:

The most high said: {In blasphemy indeed are those that say that Allah is Christ the son of Mary} – this verse raises a question, that is: IF NONE OF THE CHRISTIANS (Nazarenes) SAY, Allah is Christ the son of Mary, then why would Allah say this about them even though they do not say such thing?

The answer is most of those (Christians) who believe in the incarnation say: Allah could manifest himself in the body of a specific human being or in his spirit. If that was the case, then it would be reasonable to say that a party of the Christians did go as far as claiming this.

In fact this claim is closer to what the Christians actually say by claiming that the person (Uq'noom - {O'k noo m}) of the Word has united with Isa. According to this, the person of the Word is either an essence or an attribute. If it was an essence, then the essence of God was manifested in Isa and united with him. As a result of this, Isa is God according to this claim.

But if we say the Word is an attribute, then the transfer of this attribute from an essence to another is not logical. And if the attribute of omniscience is transferred from the essence of God to Isa, this then requires that God must empty himself of the attribute of omniscience; however, he who is not Omniscient is not a deity (God). According to this claim Isa becomes the Deity (God).

This then serves as a proof that the essence of Christian faith is to believe in this, EVEN IF THEY DO NOT REVEAL THIS CLAIM
. (Al-Razi, The Key to the Unknown Commentary – The Grand Commentary (
Tafseer Mafateeh Al Ghayb – Al Tafseer Al Kabeer))

Ar-Razi saw the problem with the assertion of the Quran since he knew that none of the Christians at that time claimed that Allah is Christ. Nevertheless, he still tried to provide an explanation to justify the Quran's gross distortion of Christian beliefs, one which we will examine in another article since his response is filled with errors and actually distorts what Christians have historically affirmed (and still affirm) regarding the nature of the Incarnation.

Suffice it to say, ar-Razi supports my case not Zawadi’s since this commentator's statements confirm that Christians were uncomfortable with the way the author of the Quran formulated their beliefs.

Moreover, I want the readers to see all of the confusion and contradictions that Zawadi is causing by bringing up all sorts of different explanations in order to defend what the Quran says. Notice that he claimed that the Quran may actually be attacking Sabellianism. Then he says that the Quran may actually be denying that Allah is Jesus by way of predication. Now he wants to use ar-Razi to prove that Allah is Jesus is an accurate assessment and formulation of the orthodox Christian belief that Jesus is God and their concept of the Incarnation.

However, if the Quran is attacking Sabellianism then it cannot be addressing the beliefs of orthodox Christians. Yet if it is condemning the views of orthodox Christian then it cannot be refuting Sabellianism! But if the Quran is actually denying that Allah is Jesus by way of predication, e.g. Jesus is not an attribute of Allah, then this doesn’t address the position held by Sabellians who taught that Jesus is the only Person who is God, not merely an attribute of God. Nor does the phrase “God is Jesus” mean the same thing that “Jesus is God” does since the latter expresses the fact that Christ is fully God in nature, that he has all of the essential Divine attributes, whereas the former means that Jesus is an attribute of God.

Zawadi wonders why I would mention Q. 6:101 which says that Allah cannot have a son since he has no spouse:

I've struggled to find out why Shamoun thinks that Surah 6:101 is necessarily a response to Christians. How does Shamoun know that Allah isn't speaking about those polytheists who claim that Allah has children (for example see Surah 21:26 and
Ibn Kathir's commentary).

I don't see how one could make the case that the Qur'an is clearly speaking about Christians in this passage. The most one could do is point out the faults of some commentators for thinking that it does apply to orthodox Christians, but I don't believe anyone is justified for going forward and extending that blame to the Qur'an as well.

Zawadi obviously missed the point since the verse is setting forth the objection that Allah cannot have a son unless he has a wife. And since he doesn’t have a consort he therefore cannot and does not have any sons or daughters:

And they make the jinn associates with Allah, while He created them, and they falsely attribute to Him sons and daughters without knowledge; glory be to Him, and highly exalted is He above what they ascribe (to Him). Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth!
How could He have a son WHEN He has no consort, and He (Himself) created everything, and He is the Knower of all things? S. 6:100-101

In light of this assertion this objection equally applies to Christians as well since according to historic Christian beliefs God does not have a wife with whom he has sex, which means that Jesus cannot be God’s Son either.

In other words, even if this was initially addressed to the polytheists, the statement is worded in a general way, applicable to all who would claim a son for Allah, irrespective of the religion.

This explains why the Muslim expositors appealed to this passage to condemn both the Christians and Jews for believing that Jesus and Ezra were the Sons of Allah:

Yet they ascribe to God (li’Llāhi, the indirect object) as associates (shurakā’a, the direct object, which is substituted by [the following, al-jinn]) the jinn, since they obey them by worshipping graven images, even though He created them: so how can they be associates? And they falsely impute to Him (read kharaqū or kharraqū), that is, they invent, sons and daughters without any knowledge, saying, Ezra (‘Uzayr) is the son of God, and the angels are the daughters of God. Glory be to Him — an affirmation of His transcendence — and exalted be He above what they describe! of Him having a child. (
Tafsir al-Jalalayn; bold and underline emphasis ours)
(Yet they ascribe as partners unto Him the jinn) they said: Allah, Exalted is He, and Satan are brothers and partners: Allah is the Creator of human beings, beasts and cattle while Satan is the Creator of snakes, scorpions and predatory beasts. This is the claim of the Magias, (although He did create them) and command them to declare His divine Oneness, (and impute falsely, without knowledge) without knowledge, argument or proof, (sons) as claimed by the Jews and Christians (and daughters unto Him) among the angels and idols, as claimed by the Arab idolaters. (Glorified be He) He has exonerated Himself from having children or partners (and high exalted) and He absolves Himself (above (all) that they ascribe (unto Him)) of sons and daughters. (
Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs; bold and underline emphasis ours)

Even Ibn Taymiyya, the Muslim scholar that Salafis like Zawadi swear by, adopted the logic of Q. 6:101 to refute the Christian claim that Jesus is the Son of God!
“… Christians alleged that they received it from the Gospel when Christ said, ‘Baptize them in the name of the Father, and the son, and the Holy Spirit.’
“Christ and the apostles never commanded them this observation by which [they claim] their view is determined, nor did Christ make this expression among them dependent upon this investigation. It is clear that their making this expression stem from this investigation is a false statement and they know it be false.

4) This statement, unless it was made by Christ, cannot be held. Moreover, even if some individual intended a true meaning by it, nevertheless this expression is only understood by the application of false meanings. Many of the masses of Christians believe that Christ is the son of God according to the sonship known among creatures. They say that Mary is the wife of God. Even if they do not state this, it is a consequent for the generality of Christians, for he who gives birth MUST HAVE A SPOUSE (6:102).
(A Muslim’s Response to Christianity (Ibn Taymiyya’s Jawab al-Sahih), edited and translated by Thomas F. Michel [Caravan Books, Delmar, New York: Second Printing 1999], Part Two: A Translation of Al-Jawab Al-Sahih Li-Man Baddal Din Al-Masih, III. Trinitarian Questions, A. Philosophical Explanation of Trinity, p. 260; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Ironically, despite the fact that he mentions Ibn Kathir Zawadi forgot to inform his readers that this expositor also used Q. 6:101-101 to condemn the beliefs of Jews and Christians that Allah has a son!
(And they Kharaqu (attribute falsely) without knowledge, sons and daughters to Him.) Allah mentions the misguidance of those who were led astray and claimed a son or offspring for Him, as the Jews did with `Uzayr, the Christians with `Isa and the Arab pagans with the angels whom they claimed were Allah's daughters. Allah is far holier than what the unjust, polytheist people associate with Him. The word, Kharaqu, means `falsely attributed, invented, claimed and lied', according to the scholars of the Salaf. Allah's statement…
(Be He Glorified and Exalted above (all) that they attribute to Him.) means, He is holier than, hallowed, and Exalted above the sons, rivals, equals and partners that these ignorant, misled people attribute to Him. (
Tafsir Ibn Kathir; bold emphasis ours)

It is rather sad that all of these renowned Muslim scholars could see how the objection and reasoning of Q. 6:100-101 have a direct impact on the Islamic perception of the Christian doctrine that Jesus is the Son of God, whereas Zawadi could not!

Needless to say, both the Quran and Muhammad were mistaken at this point since God doesn’t need a wife in order to have sons and daughters. In fact, Muhammad himself didn’t buy his own logic and actually contradicted his own position, the details of which can be found in the following articles:

So much for Zawadi’s “rebuttal.”



No comments:

Post a Comment