Thursday, 28 May 2009

The human origin of Muhammad’s legislation and teachings, Part III

How Muhammad practised Shirk

Continues from Part II

resume with our refutation to Jalal’s tirade against Christian apologist David Wood. Here we will provide further documentation for the blasphemous and idolatrous nature of Islam.

Islam’s Idolatrous Creed

It is not surprising that
Islam mandates faith in Muhammad as Allah’s messenger in order to be saved seeing that he is presented as the last of the prophets (Q. 33:40). As the late Qur’anic translator and commentator Abdullah Yusuf Ali noted,
 “… The verse does not purport to lay down an exhaustive list of articles of faith. Nor does it seek to spell out the essentials of a genuine belief in Allah, which has no meaning unless it is accompanied by belief in His Prophets for it is through their agency alone that we know Allah’s will and can abide by it in our practical lives. This is especially true of His final Prophet, Muhammad whose message is universal, and not confined to any particular group or section of humanity. Belief in the Prophethood of Muhammad is thus an integral part and a logical corollary of belief in Allah. Moreover, it is also an essential test of genuineness of such belief. This becomes clear when the verse is read in conjunction with other relevant verses of the Qur-an. See, for instance, iv. 170, v. 15, 19, vii. 157, 158, xxi. 107, xxv. I, xxxiii, 40, lxi. 6. See also ii. 40, iii. 31-32, iv. 150-151.” (Ali, Commentary on Q. 5:69, fn. 779 – ALIM CD-Rom Version)

However, what is surprising and rather shocking is that traditional, orthodox Islam requires its adherents to
verbally profess faith in both Allah and Muhammad together in order to be saved. This is known as the shahadah (testimony, testification, witness) or kalima (creed, statement). A person must recite the following Arabic words if s/he is to be considered and accepted as a Muslim(ah):

Ash-shadu anna la ilaha illallah. Ash-shadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolulah (“I bear witness that there is no god except Allah. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger”).

A Muslim(ah) may also express his/her faith with the following words:

Ash-shadu anna la ilaha illallahu wahdahu la Sharika Lahu wa ash-shadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluhu (“I bear witness that there is no god except, the One, without any partner. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger”).

If this weren’t problematic enough, what many non-Muslims (as well as many Muslims!) do not realize is that certain Muslim sources attest that
Allah deliberately conjoined his name with Muhammad’s through the use of the Arabic conjunction wa (“and”). And according to Islamic scholars this is the conjunction of equality and partnership, which therefore places Muhammad on the same divine level with his god!

For instance, a renowned Muslim jurist and scholar named Qadi Iyad Ibn Musa al-Yahsubi refers to Muslims who discouraged others from using the conjunction when speaking of Allah and anything else. He,
however, makes an exception in the case of the Islamic creed of faith, the very confession which elevates Muhammad to divine status and parity with Allah!

Qatada said, “
Allah exalted his fame in this world and the Next. There is no speaker, witness nor anyone doing the prayer who fails to say, ‘There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’”

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri related that the Prophet said, “
Jibril came to me and said, ‘My Lord and your Lord says, “Do you know how I have exalted your fame?”’ I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said, ‘When I am mentioned you are mentioned with Me.’”

Ibn ‘Ata quoted a
hadith qudsi saying, “
I completed belief with your being mentioned with Me.” And another one which says, “I have made your mention part of My mention so whoever mentions Me, mentions you.”

Ja'far ibn Muhammad as-Sadiq, “
No one mentions you as the Messenger but that he mentions Me as the Lord.”

The fact that mention of the Prophet is directly connected to mention of Allah also shows that obedience to the Prophet is connected to obedience to Allah and his name to Allah's name. Allah says, “Obey Allah and His Messenger” (2:32) and “Believe in Allah and His Messenger.” (4:136) Allah joins them together using the conjunction wa WHICH IS THE CONJUNCTION OF PARTNERSHIP. IT IS NOT PERMITTED TO USE THIS CONJUNCTION IN CONNECTION WITH ALLAH IN THE CASE OF ANYONE EXCEPT THE PROPHET.

Hudhayfa said that the Prophet said, “None of you should say, ‘What Allah wills and (wa) so-and-so wills.’ Rather say, ‘What Allah wills.’ Then stop and say, ‘So-and-so wills.’”

Al-Khattabi said, “The Prophet has guided you to correct behaviour in putting the will of Allah before the will of others. He chose ‘then’ (
thumma) which implies sequence and deference as opposed to ‘and’ (wa) WHICH IMPLIES PARTNERSHIP.

Something similar is mentioned in another
hadith. Someone was speaking in the presence of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and said, “Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has been rightly guided, and whoever rebels against them both (joining them together by using the dual form) …” The Prophet said to him, “What a bad speaker you are! Get up! [Or he said: Get out!]”

Abu Sulayman said, “He disliked the two names being joined together in that way
Qadi Iyad, Kitab Ash-shifa bi ta'rif huquq al-Mustafa, Part One. Allah’s great estimation of the worth of His Prophet expressed both in word and action, Chapter One: Allah’s praise of him and his great esteem for him, Section 1. Concerning praise of him and his numerous excellent qualities, pp. 7-8)

“… He coupled his name with His own name, and his pleasure with His pleasure. He made him one of the two pillars of tawhid.” (Ibid., Chapter One: Allah’s praise of his Prophet, Section 9. Concerning the marks of honour given to the Prophet in Sura al-Fath, p. 27)

And not only did Allah join Muhammad’s name to his own by
the use of the conjunction wa he also placed his name on the very door of the heavenly garden itself!

Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Written on the door of the Garden is: I am Allah. There is no god but Me. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. I will not punish anyone who says that.” (Ibid., Chapter Three:, p. 90)

Interestingly, even the late Muhammad ibn Abdul-
Wahhab agreed that it is vitally important for a Muslim to avoid using wa when referring to Allah together with someone or something else. According to him, a Muslim should rather use the conjunction thumma (“then”), or some other formulation which will avoid associating Allah with anything. He writes in his book on Islamic monotheism that,

A Jewish man came to the Prophet and said: “Verily, you (Muslims) commit Shirk, for you say: ‘As Allah wills AND as you will;’ and you say: ‘By the Ka’bah!’” And so the Prophet ordered whoever wanted to swear, to say: “By the Lord of the Ka’bah” and to say: “As Allah wills, THEN as you will.” (An-Nasaa’ee, it was declared saheeh by Albanee in as Saheehah # 137 and declared saheeh by Adh-Dhahabee in his checking of Al Mustadrak and declared saheeh by Ibn Hajar in Al Isaabah 4/389)

A man came to the Prophet and he said: “As Allah
AND you will,” at which the Prophet said: “Would you set me up as a partner besides Allah? As Allah Alone Wills
” (An-Nasaa’ee, declared authentic (hasan) by Albanee in as Saheehah # 139)

On the authority of At-Tufail the half brother of Aishah it is reported that he said: "I saw in a dream that I came upon a number of Jews and I said to them: ‘You are indeed a good people were it not that you claim ‘Uzair is the son of Allah.’ They replied: ‘You too are good,
were it not that you say: As Allah wills AND as Muhammad wills.’ Then, I came upon a number of Christians and I said to them: ‘You are indeed a good people were it not that you claim the Messiah (Jesus) is the son of Allah.’ They replied: ‘You are also good, were it not that you say: As Allah wills AND as Muhammad wills.’ When I awoke I told someone about this then I went to the Prophet and repeated it to him. He asked me: ‘Have you told anyone about this?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ Then he went to the pulpit and, after praising Allah, he said: ‘At-Tufail had a dream which he has already communicated to some of you. You used to say something which I was prevented from forbidding to you until now. Henceforth do not say: As Allah wills AND as Muhammad wills, but say: What Allah Alone Wills.’
(Ibn Maajah, Albanee mentioned it in as Saheehah # 138, Al Haythamee said in Majma Az-Zawaaid: the men in its chain are reliable according to the conditions of Imam Muslim) (Takhreej of Kitaab at Tawheed, posted by 2004, Chapter 43: Saying: “As Allah Wills and You Will”, pp. 21-22; See also Kitab At-Tawheed, translated by the Compilation and Research Department Dar-us-Salam, Chapter No: 44. How it is to say “What Allah may will and you may will”)


The Prophet said:
“Do not say: ‘As Allah wills AND so and so wills,’ but (instead) say: ‘As Allah wills and THEN as so and so wills.’
(Abu Dawood, declared saheeh by Albaanee in as Saheehah #137 and Shaykh Al Islam Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab in Kitaab At Tawheed)

Ibraheem An-Nakha’i hated for anyone to say: “I seek refuge in Allah AND you,” but he considered it permissible to say: “I seek refuge in Allah and THEN in you.” Then he added: “A person should say: If not for Allah then so-and-so…” and he should not say: “If not for Allah AND so-and-so.” (Abdur Razzaq)
(Ibid., Chapter 41: Allah’s Words: “And Do Not Ascribe Partners to Allah when you know [the Truth]”, p. 21; See also Kitab At-Tawheed, by Dar-us-Salam, Chapter No: 42. (“Do not set up rivals unto Allah…”))

Some of these reports are also found in the writings of the late Shaykh al-Albany, another Salafi whom many Muslim scholars consider an innovator and distorter of Islamic teachings (*; *),

2- 923 - On the authority of Qutaylah bint Seefee al-Juhaneeyah who said: A learned man from amongst the people of the Book came to the Messenger of Allaah and said: ‘O Muhammad, you would be a blessed people if only you did not commit Shirk!’

He said: ‘SubhanAllaah, how is that?’

He said: ‘You say, when you take a vow, ‘I swear by the Ka’ba.’’

Qutaylah said: The Messenger of Allaah waited for a while then said: ‘Indeed he has said so, so for the one who makes a vow then let him make a vow by saying: (wa Rabb al-Ka’ba)
I swear by The Lord of the Ka’ba.’

The learned man then said: ‘O Muhammad you would be blessed people if it were not that you set up a partner with Allaah!’

The Messenger said: ‘SubhanAllaah and how is that?’

He answered: ‘You say, ‘
Whatever Allaah wills AND whatever you will.’’

Qutaylah said: The Messenger of Allaah waited for a while then said: ‘Indeed he has said so, so whoever says: ‘Whatever Allaah wills,’ then he should say along with it: ‘
THEN whatever you will
.’’ No. 1166 (Ahadeeth Pertaining to Eemaan, Tawheed, Deen and Qadr, taken from Silsilah Ahadeeth As-Saheehah of Shaykh Al-Albaani, translated by Abbas Abu Yahya)

It is evident from the preceding sources that the Islamic confession elevates Muhammad to divine status, making him coequal with Allah. Traditional Islam is therefore guilty of idolatry since it requires its adherents to conjoin a mere fallible, imperfect creature with their creator, making him a necessary component of salvation.

In order to see just how blasphemous and idolatrous the Muslim kalima truly is all a person has to do is to compare the OT confession of faith with the Islamic one:
 Hear O Israel, the LORD our God, the LORD is one (Shema Yisrael Yahweh Eloheinu Yahweh Echad).” Deuteronomy 6:4

Notice that the Shema makes no mention of Moses
(or any other prophet for that matter). This OT creedal statement is unlike the shahadah of the Muslims since it demonstrates that there is no place for confessing a mere creature (not even an angel!) alongside the one true God in one’s testimony of belief. Jalal will be hard pressed to find any mere mortal prophet or messenger conjoining their name with Yahweh’s in the way that Muhammad did.

For Muhammad to then come along after the inscripturation and codification of God’s inspired revelations, which he spoke through his blessed prophets and apostles, and exalt himself to parity of status with God – something that no true mortal prophet or apostle ever did – is simply further evidence that he is a false prophet.

Jalal needs to therefore explain how could and why would Allah make Muhammad an integral part of Islamic monotheism by including him as one of the two pillars of Tawhid, when this is supposed to be the very essence of Allah’s unity. Jalal has to further disprove that this inclusion of Muhammad within the Islamic creed doesn’t make his prophet, who is nothing more than a finite creature, into a god and a coequal partner with the Islamic deity.

Now Jalal may say that this is what the NT has done with the Lord Jesus Christ, particularly, conjoin his Person with God the Father in confessional statements such as in the following examples:
 because, if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For man believes with his heart and so is justified, and he confesses with his lips and so is saved. The scripture says, "No one who believes in him will be put to shame.’” Romans 10:9-10
 Hence, as to the eating of food offered to idols, we know that ‘an idol has no real existence,’ and that ‘there is no God but one.’ For although there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth -- as indeed there are many ‘gods’ and many ‘lords’ -- yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist.” 1 Corinthians 8:4-6

The problem with appealing to such texts to justify what Muhammad did in the shahadah is that these passages presuppose the Deity of Christ and his essential coequality with the Father. The inspired NT writers are not joining a creature with the Creator in statements of belief, but are exhorting true believers to profess saving faith in the Divine Father and his Divine Son. In other words, the NT authors believed that both the Father and Son are fully God in essence and the joint Source of salvation, which explains why confessing faith in both of them is necessary for salvation:
 “For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him. He who believes in him is not condemned; he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God.” John 3:16-18
 “If any one hears my sayings and does not keep them, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world but to save the world.”
John 12:47
 Let not your hearts be troubled; believe in God, believe also in me. In my Father's house are many rooms; if it were not so, would I have told you that I go to prepare a place for you? And when I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also.” John 14:1-3
 “After Jesus said this, he looked toward heaven and prayed: ‘Father, the time has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may glorify you. For you granted him authority over all people that he might give eternal life to all those you have given him. Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, AND Jesus Christ, whom you have sent.’”
John 17:1-3
 For it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory, should make the Author of their salvation perfect through suffering.” Hebrews 2:10
 Although he was a Son, he learned obedience through what he suffered; and being made perfect he became the Source of eternal salvation to all who obey him,” Hebrews 5:8-9

"In this the love of God was made manifest among us, that God sent his only Son into the world, so that we might live through him. In this is love, not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins… And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world. Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God.” 1 John 4:9-10, 14-15
 If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater; for this is the testimony of God that he has borne witness to his Son. He who believes in the Son of God has the testimony in himself. He who does not believe God has made him a liar, because he has not believed in the testimony that God has borne to his Son. And this is the testimony, that God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. He who has the Son has life; he who has not the Son of God has not life. I write this to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life.” 1 John 5:9-13
 And they sang a new song: ‘You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because you were slain, and with your blood you purchased men for God from every tribe and language and people and nation. You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to serve our God, and they will reign on the earth.’ Then I looked and heard the voice of many angels, numbering thousands upon thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand. They encircled the throne and the living creatures and the elders. In a loud voice they sang: ‘Worthy is the Lamb, who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and strength and honor and glory and praise!’ Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all that is in them, singing: ‘To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be praise and honor and glory and power, for ever and ever!’ The four living creatures said, ‘Amen,’ and the elders fell down and worshiped.” Revelation 5:9-14
 “After this I looked and there before me was a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language, standing before the throne and in front of the Lamb. They were wearing white robes and were holding palm branches in their hands. And they cried out in a loud voice: 'Salvation belongs to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb.'
” Revelation 7:9-10

To, therefore, cite NT texts to justify what Muhammad did only further proves that the Islamic confession has taken a creature and made him equal with the creator.

For more on the idolatrous implications of Islam’s shahadah we suggest the following articles and rebuttals:

Muhammad – The co-occupant of Allah’s throne

To make matters worse, there are certain Islamic expositors which claim that the following passage,

And as for the night, keep vigil a part of it, as a work of supererogation for thee; it
MAY BE that thy Lord will raise thee up to a laudable station.
S. 17:79

Refers to the last day when Allah will actually seat Muhammad on his very own throne! The renowned Muslim historian and commentator al-Tabari wrote that:
Even though the traditions we have mentioned on the authority of the Prophet and his Companions and the Followers indicate the correct interpretation of maqaman mahmudan in Qur. 17:79 (as referring to Muhammad’s role as intercessor on the Day of Resurrection), Mujahid’s statement that God will seat Muhammad on His Throne remains one whose soundness CANNOT BE REJECTED either on the basis of traditions (khabar) or on the basis of speculation (nazar). This is so because there is n tradition from the Messenger of God or anyone of his Companions or the Followers that declares it to be impossible… From what we have said, it has become clear that, it is not impossible for an adherent of Islam to say what Mujahid had said, namely, that God will seat Muhammad on His Throne. If someone says: We do not disapprove of God’s seating Muhammad on His Throne (in view of the following tradition transmitted by) ‘Abbas b. ‘Abd al-‘Azim – Yahya b. Kathir – al-Jurayri – Sayf al-Sadusi – ‘Abdallah b. Salam: ‘On the Day of Resurrection, Muhammad will be on the Lord’s footstool (kursi),’ but we disapprove of God’s seating him together with Him, it should be said: Is it then permissible in your opinion that He seat him on it but not together with him? If he permits this, he is led to affirming that either he is together with Him, or God seats him (on the Throne) while being Himself either separate from it or neither contiguous with nor separate from it. Whatever alternative he chooses, he thereby enters into something that he disapproves. If he says that it is not permissible, he deviates from the statements of all the groups we have reported. This means diverging from the views of all adherents of Islam, since there is no other possible statement than those three, according to each of which Mujahid’s statement in this sense is not impossible.” (The History of Al-Tabari – General Introduction and From Creation to the Flood, translated by Franz Rosenthal [State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany 1989], Volume I, Appendix A. A Partial Translation of Tafsir on Qur. 17:79 (Above, pp. 75 f.), pp. 149. 151)

See also al-Tabari’s explanation of Q. 17:79.

Al-Qurtubi, who is also viewed as an outstanding Muslim exegete, commented on this same Qur’anic reference in his al-Jami‘ li Ahkam al-Qur’an:

The third explanation of this verse
is what al-Tabari reported from a party of scholars – among them Mujahid – whereby “the Exalted Station is the seating by Allah of the Prophet with Him on His Throne (kursiyyih).” They narrated a hadith to that effect, and al-Tabari backed up the possibility (jawâz) of such a thing with some extravagant statements (shatatin min al-qawl). However, what he said cannot be inferred [from the verse] except with over-subtlety as to meaning (al-talattuf bi al-ma‘nâ), and it is far-fetched (fîhi bu‘d). This is not to say that there is no such narration; only that [one endowed with] knowledge interprets it figuratively (al-‘ilmu yata’awwaluhu)… On that basis it is the same, with respect to possibility, whether Allah seats the Prophet on the Throne or on the ground. For His elevation over the Throne is not in the sense of displacement (intiqâl), removal (zawâl), nor change of position from standing to sitting, nor any state or condition to which the Throne itself is subject. Rather, He is elevated over the Throne in the way He has stated concerning Himself, without saying how. Nor does His seating of the Prophet on the Throne impose upon the Prophet (s) the attribute of Lordship [sic] or move him out of that of servanthood [sic]. Rather, it consists in an elevation because of his status, and an honor bestowed upon him because of his sublime character
. (Source)

Another Muslim authority named Ibn Batta stated in his book al-Sharh wa al-Ibana ‘ala Usul al-Sunna wa al-Diyana (“Elaboration of the Principles of Sunni Doctrine”), p. 61, that:

The Prophet shall be seated on the Throne with his Lord (yujlas ma‘a rabbihi ‘alâ al-‘arsh), and this privilege belongs to no one else. Thus did Nafi‘ narrate it from Ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet concerning the verse: “It may be that thy Lord will raise you to an Exalted Station” – he said that He shall seat him with Him on the Throne. Thus also did Mujahid explain it, as narrated by Muhammad ibn Fudayl, from al-Layth, from Mujahid.

For those interested to know who this Mujahid is, he is Mujahid ibn Jabr, Abu al-Hajjaj al-Makhzumi (d. 102), one of the major commen­tators of the Qur’an among the
tabi’in or followers of Muhammad’s companions (sahabah), and viewed as holding the highest rank in reli­ability among hadith narrators (thiqa). It is related by a Muslim scholar named Ibn Sa‘d, in al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (6:9), that Mujahid went over the explanation of the Islamic scripture together with Ibn ‘Abbas, Muhammad’s first cousin and one of the most knowledgeable Muslims that ever lived, approximately thirty times

And here is a modern Muslim writer who affirms this interpretation:

Do they know any other Prophet or angel whom Allah addressed directly and by whose life He swore? “By thy life (O Muhammad)!” (15:72); “And who is better in his discourse than he who calls unto Allah and does good and says: I am one of the Muslims?” (41:33) i.e. who is better in speech than the Prophet? “Lo! those who believe and do good works are the best of created beings” (98:7) i.e. the Prophet is the best of created beings; “Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct” (49:13) i.e. the Prophet is the noblest of those to whom the Qur'an is addressed in the sight of Allah; “And lo! thou (Muhammad) art [I swear] of a tremendous nature” (68:4). The reality of this compliment - khuluqin `azim - can be fathomed only by the Speaker Himself and whoever He wills; "Of those messengers, some of whom We have caused to excel others, and of whom there are some unto whom Allah spake, while _some of them He exalted (above others) in degree_" (2:253) i.e. the Prophet. “
And we preferred some of the Prophets above others” (17:55) then He said: “It may be that thy Lord will raise thee to a praised estate” (17:79), a Station which the Prophet said none but he would receive and this is the Station of Intercession at the right of the Glorious Throne as we described at length in the posting “The Seating of the Prophet on the Throne.”
(G.F. Haddad, The Prophetic Title "Best of Creation"; *; *)

This is another obvious case of Muslims “borrowing” the theology of the inspired holy Writings, particularly the Biblical depiction of the Lord Jesus, and applying it to Muhammad in order to make the latter more comparable to the glorious and risen Son of God. According to God’s truly inspired writings after his resurrection Jesus ascended into heaven to sit on and rule from his Father’s glorious throne as the exalted and immortal Lord of all creation whom every creature shall eventually worship:
 “… Again the high priest asked him, ‘Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?’ ‘I am,’ said Jesus. ‘And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.’” Mark 14:61b-62
 But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, looked up to heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God. ‘Look,’ he said, ‘I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.’” Acts 7:55-56
 and his incomparably great power for us who believe. That power is like the working of his mighty strength, which he exerted in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms, far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every title that can be given, not only in the present age but also in the one to come. And God placed all things under his feet and appointed him to be head over everything for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills everything in every way.” Ephesians 1:19-23
 For of this you can be sure: No immoral, impure or greedy person—such a man is an idolater—has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.” Ephesians 5:5
 Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.”
Philippians 2:9-11
 “For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form, and you have been given fullness in Christ, who is the head over every power and authority… Since, then, you have been raised with Christ, set your hearts on things above, where Christ is seated at the right hand of God.”
Colossians 2:9-10, 3:1
 The point of what we are saying is this: We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, and who serves in the sanctuary, the true tabernacle set up by the Lord, not by man.” Hebrews 8:1-2
 “… It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ, who has gone into heaven and is at God's right hand—with angels, authorities and powers in submission to him.”
1 Peter 3:21b-22
 “To him who overcomes, I will give the right to sit with me on my throne, just as I overcame and sat down with my Father on his throne.”
Revelation 3:21
 “Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, as clear as crystal, flowing from the throne (singular) of God and of the Lamb down the middle of the great street of the city. On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations. No longer will there be any curse. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in the city, and his servants will serve him.”
Revelation 22:1-3

Interestingly, there were certain Muslims such as the commentator Al-Kawthari who could clearly see that these Islamic narratives were influenced by Christian claims concerning the exaltation of the risen Christ. He wrote in his Maqalat, p. 358, that:
 “Whoever imagines that our Lord sits on the Throne and leaves space at His side for His Prophet to sit, has followed the Christians who hold that ‘Isa was raised to heaven and sat next to his Father – Allah is clear of the partnership they ascribe to Him!” (G. F. Haddad, The Prophet’s Seating on the Throne)

Even during Muhammad’s own lifetime there were individuals who could see that the former was passing himself off as the Islamic version of Jesus by making certain claims and demands that were quite a similar to what the NT teaches concerning Christ:

It is related that 'Umar said to the Prophet, “Part of your excellence with Allah is that He has made obedience to you obedience to Him. Allah says, ‘
Whoever obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah’ (4:80) and ‘If you love Allah, then follow me and Allah will love you.’” (3:31) it is related that when this ayat was sent down, people said, “Muhammad wants us to take him as a mercy IN THE WAY CHRISTIANS DID WITH ‘ISA, so Allah revealed, ‘Say: Obey Allah, and the Messenger.’
(3:32) (Qadi Iyad, p. 9)

 (And he commanded you) O people of the Quraysh, Jews and Christians (not that ye should take the angels) as daughters of Allah (and the Prophets for lords. Would he command you to disbelieve) how could Abraham command you to follow disbelief (after ye had surrendered (to Allah) after he commanded you to follow Islam (completely Surrendering to Allah), saying to you: (Lo! Allah hath chosen for you the (true) Religion; therefore die not save as men who have surrendered [2:132]). Allah says here: Allah has not sent a Messenger except that He commanded him to follow Islam and not Judaism, Christianity or the worship of idols, as these unbelievers claim. It is also said that this verse was revealed about the claims of the Jews that Muhammad commanded them to love him and worship him as the Christians worshipped Jesus. The Christians and idolaters also made the same claim.
(Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs)

For more on Muhammad occupying Allah’s throne please consult the following articles:

Continues on Part IV



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