Monday, 22 June 2009

Corruption and Distortion (Tahreef) in The Qur’an, Part I

”How to erase this false Myth, by Amaar Khan”

1) Introduction
2) Corruption in shia narrations:
3) Sunni reports about additions in Qur’an
4) Sunni reports about deletions from the Qur’an
5) Sunni reports about mistakes & changes in Qur’an
6) Corruption among ulema’s of ahle sunnah

1. Introduction:

The Qur’an makes this claim:

Verily, we have sent down the Reminder, and, verily, we will guard it. Q15:9

But like other books of the world, the Qur’an is also corrupted. An interesting fact is that all Islamic scholars accept this fact. The Sunnis blame the Shi’a in corrupting the Qur’an and vice versa. In reality, both books of Shias and Sunnis do have narrations regarding corruption and editing in the unholy Qur’an. I have written an article regarding the corruption in Qur’an. That was enough for any one to check out the corruption in the Qur’an but, now, I have compiled an E-book dedicated to this purpose (’an.htm ). I thought it will end the Qur’an corruption debate. After reading this e-book, no Muslim will be able to say that the Qur’an is not corrupted.

2) Shia Hadiths of Distortions:

First Group of Hadiths about Tahreef

The first group of hadiths are those that contain the word “Tahreef” in them. The first one is from Al Kafi:

It has been narrated from Ali Ibn Suweed that Imam Musa Kazim [as] was in prison when I wrote a letter to him. The Imam [as] replied to it and amidst his reply he wrote this sentence: “They were declared Ameen over the book of Allah but they have committed Tahreef and made changes to it

We see another hadith from this group which has been recorded by Ibn Shehr Ashob in ‘Manaqib’. The sermon of Imam Hussain that he delivered on the day of Ashura has been recorded in the following manner.

No doubt you are counted amongst those people from the ummah of my grandfather who are disobedient and rebellious, who have left the bounds determined by Allah, who have thrown away the Book of Allah, and talk with the satanic intuition. Verily you are amongst the same people whose faces are black on account of your sins and have committed the dangerous crime of making Tahreef with the Book of Allah”.

Second Group of hadith about Tahreef

The second group of hadiths are those that suggest that the names of Imams of Ahlulbait [as] were present in the Qur’an but were deleted at a later date.

We read in Al-Kafi regarding the verse 2:23:

Jabir said: Gebrail revealed this verse to Muhammad in this manner: ‘And if you are in doubt as to that which We have revealed in favor of Ali to Our servant, then produce a chapter like it’. ‘Al-Kafi, Volume 1 page 417 Hadith 26

In a second tradition on this group of hadiths Abu Baseer narrated the revelation of the verse 33:71 from Imam Jafar Sadiq in the following manner:

Abu Abdullah [as] said: ‘Allah almighty said: ‘and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger in the guardianship of Ali and the Imams after him, he indeed achieves a mighty success’. It was revealed in this manner’. Al-Kafi, Volume 1 page 414

A third tradition of this group has been narrated by Manhal from Imam Jaffar Sadiq [as] the verse 4:47 was revealed in the following manner:

Abu Abdullah said: ‘Gabriel (as) revealed upon Muhammad (s) this verse: ‘O you who have been given the Book! believe that which We have revealed in Ali’s favor a clear light’.’

It has been narrated on the authority of Asbagh bin Nabata that Ameer al Momineen [as] said: One part of the Qur’an is about us Ahlebayt and our friends, and another part is about incidents and traditions while one part is about obligations and instructions”. Al-Kafi.

We also read in Tafseer al Ayashi that Imam Jaffar Sadiq [as] said:

If the Qur’an were recited in the manner in which it was revealed then our name(s) would have appeared in it. Tafseer Al Ayashi,  Volume page 17 Hadith 4

third group of hadith about Tahreef

next group of hadiths contain hadiths that demonstrate Tahreef in the Qur’an with respect to additions or deletions.

First Hadith [Tafseer Al Ayashi, p. 13, Hadith 6]:
“Narrated from Mesar that Imam Baqar [as] said: Had additions and deletions not been made in then Qur’an then our right would not have been hidden from those who possess minds. When the Qaim [as] rises, the Qur’an shall endorse every sentence uttered from his tongue.”

Second Hadith [Usole kafi 1:228]:

Jabir reported that he heard Imam Baqir saying: 'No one can claim that he has compiled the Qur’an as Allah revealed except a liar. The only person to compile it and memor! ise it according to its revelation was Ali ibn Abi Talib and the Imams who succeeded him.’an_is_fabricated.htm

Kulyani narrates the following statement, which he attributes to Imam Baqir:

"None among mankind but a great liar claims that he has compiled the whole Qur'an as it was revealed. No one compiled it nor memorized it as Allah revealed it, but Ali Bin Abi Talib and the Imams after him."

Third Hadith [Al-Kafi, Vol. 1 p. 13, Hadith 4; Basair al Darjaat, p. 213, Hadith 1]:

Imam Baqar [as] said: 'Other than the actual successors of the Holy Prophet [s] no one can claim that he possesses the Qur’an with its internal and external meanings.'

The fourth Group of Hadith about Tahreef

This group comprises of those traditions that suggest that the names of some men and women were mentioned in the Qur’an but! were deleted later on.

First Hadith [Tafseer al Ayashi, Vol 1: p. 12: Hadith 10]:

Imam Jaffar Sadiq [as] said: “The Qur’an contains the incidents of the past and future and it contained the names of some men which were deleted from it and one name was mentioned in many Surahs which on one knows except the actual successors of Holy Prophet [s].

Second Hadith [Al Kafi, Vol 2: p. 613: Hadith 16]:

Baznati narrates that Imam Raza [as] gave me a Qur’an and asked me not to see it, but I opened it and recited the first verse of Surah Baina. I found the names of 70 people from the Quraish along with their father’s names. The Imam [as] asked me to return the Qur’an to him.

Third Hadith [Thawaab al A`maal, p. 100; Bihar al Anwar, Vol 92: p. 50]:

Abdullah bin Sanan narrated from Imam Jaffar [as] that said:Surah Ahzab contained the blemishes of men and women from the Quraish and non Quraish. O son of Sanaan this Surah alone used to expose the wrong deeds of the women of Quraish and it was lengthier than Surah Baqra but Tahreef and deletion was made to it”

The fifth Group of Hadith about Tahreef

This group of hadiths contains those hadiths relating to a certain form of recitations [Qirat] that have been attributed to Imams [as].

One such tradition is where a man recited the verse 33 of Surah An'am before Amir al-Momineen [as] in this manner:


Umran bin Maytham narrated that Abu Abdullah said: 'A man recited to Ameer al Momineen (as) '{but surely they do not call you a liar but the unjust deny the communications of Allah}'. He (Imam Ali) said: 'By Allah they called him liar, but the verse (Yukathiboonaka) is not to be pronounced emphatically means that they cannot bring falsehood to reject your truth! fulness'. [Al-Kafi, Vol 8: p. 200–241]

Muhammad bin Suleman narrates from some Sahaba who from Imam Abul Hassan [as]:

We hear some verses that have never been heard before from the Qur’an. Moreover we cannot recite [ do qirat] in such a beautiful manner as you do, so are we sinners? The Imam replied: No you are not sinners but you recite the Qur’an in the manner in which you have been taught and soon there will come a person to teach you.” [Usool al-Kafi, Vol 2: p. 453]

3. Sunni reports about additions in Qur’an

Ibn Abbas testified to fifty verses being added to the Qur’an of Uthman

Allamah Jalaluddin Suyuti has recorded a tradition from Ibn Abbas wherein he says [Tafseer Al Itqan fi Uloom al Qur’an, Vol 1: p. 84]

The number of verses in the Qur’an are 6616.

Disagreement amongst Sunni scholars over the number of Qur’anic verses

Allamah Jalaluddin Suyuti, whilst citing Sunni scholarly opinion from Sunni scholar Uthman bin Saeed bin Uthman Abu Amro al-Daani (d. 444 H), wrote [Al-Itqan fi Uloom al-Qur’an, Vol 1: p. 84]:

Al-Daani said: ‘They agreed that the number of verses of Qur’an are six thousand but they disagreed in what has been added further (to the Qur’an), some of them didn't add more whilst others said it was two hundred and four. Some said two hundred and fourteen, others said two hundred and nineteen. Some said two hundred and twenty five, others said two hundred and thirty six.’

According to Imam of Nawasib Ibn Kathir, 6000 verses are authentic the remainder are doubtful

To evidence this we have relied on the following esteemed books of Ahle Sunnah.

Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Volume 1 page 7, number of verses
Tafseer Qurtubi, Volume 1 page 65, number of verses

We read in Tafseer Ibn Kathir:
“The total number of verses Qur’anic verses are 6000. Disagreement remains about the remainder verses. There are various views and statements about them. One statement is that there are 6204 verses

The Hanafi and Maliki belief that “Bismillah al-Rehman al-Rahim” is not a part of the Qur’an

Abu Huraira narrated that the prophet said: 'If anyone recited (Surah) al-Hamd, he shall recite 'Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim' because it is the head of Qur’an, the head of the book and the Sab'e al-Mathani (seven verses) and 'Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim' is part of its verses' [Kanz al-Ummal, Vol 7: p. 437: Tradition 19665]

Imam Ibn Hajar! Asqalani declared it 'Sahih' in Talkhis al-Habir, Vol 1: p. 233.

Let us also see the testimony of Amir al-Momineen, Ali bin Abi Talib, as recorded by Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti in Al-Itqan, Vol 1: p. 136]:

Someone asked Ali: 'What is Sab'e al-Mathani (Seven Verses)?' He replied: 'It is Sura Al-Hamd'. The man said: 'Sura Al-Hamd consists of six verses'. He replied: ''Bismillah Al-Rehman -Al-Rahim' is also one verse'.

About the famed Hanafi and Maliki belief regarding 'Bismillah' we have relied on the following valued books of Ahle Sunnah.

Tafseer Mazhari, Volume 1 page 3 by Qazi Sanaullah Paani Patti
Tafseer Qurtubi, Volume 1 ! page 92, Muqqadmah Tafseer
Tafseer Fatah al Qadeer, Volume 1 page 7 by Qazi Shokani
Tafseer Khazin, Volume 1 page 12, Muqqadmah
Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Volume 1 page 20, Farid Book Depot, Dehli
Tafseer Ahkaam al Qur’an al Jasaas
Noor al Anwar , page 9
Tafseer Kabeer, Volume 1 page 151
Tafseer Madarik , Volume 1 page 13
Tafseer Kashaf, Volume 1 page 1 by Allamah Zamakhshari
Umdatul Qari Shrah Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1 page 12

We read in Tafseer Ibn Kathir:
 “On the other hand, Malik, Abu Hanifah and their followers said that Bismillah is not an Ayah in Al-Fatihah or any other Surah.”

We read in Tafseer Khazin:

“Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik and Imam Auzai attested that neither is “Bismillah” a part of surah Fatihah, nor of any other surah of the Qur’an.”

We read in Tafseer Kabeer:

While Abu Hanifa may Allah's mercy be upon him said: 'Bismillah is not a verse of it 

According to Imam Shaffiyee “Bismillah Al Rehman Al-Rahim” is a part and a verse of Holy Qur’an and since whoever rejects even a single letter of the Qur’an is Kaafir then doesn’t this mean that Imam Abu Hanifa was Kaafir according to Shafiyee teachings? Does it not mean that all Hanafis are infidels in the eyes of Shafiyees?

We read in Noor al Anwar
“One who rejects that “Bismillah” is a part of the Qur’an should not be deemed a Kaafir when that rejection is on account of doubt. There is disagreement on this issue in the view of Imam Malik as he didn’t deem it to be a part of the Qur’an.”

Other than the month of Ramadhan, “Bismillah” shouldn’t be recited in any prayer neither on one's heart nor loudly.

Imam Fakhruddin Razi writes in Tafseer Kabeer, Volume 1 page 151:
“Imam Malik and Auzai may Allah be pleased with both of them said: 'It (Bismillah) isn’t a part of the Qur’an except Surah Naml and that other than in Ramadhan, it should not be recited, neither in ones heart nor aloud.”

The Ulema of Ahle Sunnah believed that the sole reason that “Bismillah” was written in the Qur’an was to make a distance between the texts and to earn a blessing.

We read in Tafseer Kashaf [Volume 1, page 1]:

“The jurists and the Qura of Madina, Basrah and Sham believed that "Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Raheem " was not a part of Surah al-Fatiha nor from the Qur’an . It was written in the Qur’an so as to keep a distance between the suras (chapters) and to earn blessings by commencing with it, as is the case when one commences any action. [The stance] deeming it not to be a part of Qur’an was the madhab of Imam Abu Hanifa and his followers and for that it is not recited loudly by them during prayers.”

We ! also read in Tafseer Kashaf:

“And the Qur’an readers of Makka and Kufa believed that it [bismillah] is a verse from [Surah] Fatihah and every Surat and this was maintained by Imam Shafiyee and his followers and due to that, they read it loudly.”

Uthman’s own confession about his ignorance on the issue of Bismillah being a part of Surah Bara’t

We are quoting from the following Sunni books.

Tafseer Gharaib al Qur’an, Volume 2 page 57
Tafseer Kabeer, Volume 4 page 294
Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Volume 3 page 331
Tafseer Mazhari, Volume 4 page 32
Tafseer Mualam al Tanzeel, Volume 3 page 410
Tafseer Khazin, Volume 3 page 46
Tafseer Ruh al Mani, Volume 9 page 41
Sahih Tirmidhi, Volume 2 page 368

We read in Tirmidhi:
“The Holy Prophet [s] died without informing us whether this (Surah Bar’at) was a part of that (Surah Anfaal) or not”

Imam of Ahle Sunnah, Imam Malik, said that “Bismillah” is not written at the beginning of Surah Bara’t, because when the first part of Surah Bar'at was lost the “Bismillah” was also lost along with it whilst Uthman stated that the Prophet [s] didn’t tell them whether or not Sura Bar'at was a part of Surah Anfaal. Uthman has indirectly admitted that he adopted Qiyas when he was unsure. Here we see a major contradiction between two great figures of Ahle Sunnah.

According to the Sahabi Abdullah Ibn Masud, Surah Fatiha is NOT a part of Qur’an

Tafseer Qurtubi, Vol 1: p.15 & Vol 19: p.151
Tafseer Dur al Manthur, Volume 1 page 2
Tafseer Kabeer page 176
Tafseer Al Itqan, Volume 1 page 80
Tafseer Fatah al-Qadeer, Volume 1 page 15

We read in Tafseer Fatah al-Qadeer:

Abdullah bin Masud would not write Fateha as part of the Qur’an, he said: ‘If I wrote it then I would have to write it at the beginning of every thing.’

Imam Ibn Hajr Asqalani writes in Fatah al Bari, Volume 8, page 571:
“There is an ijma amongst Muslims over Fatihah and Mauzatain being a part of the Qur’an and whoever rejects them is a Kaafir”

Further evidence of Ibn Masud rejecting Surah Fatihah as being a part of the Qur’an

We are quoting from the following Sunni books.

Al Itqan fi Uloom al Qur’an, Volume 1 page 99
Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Volume 1 page 9
Tafseer Fatah al Qadeer, Volume 1 page 6 by Allamah Shokani
Tafseer al-Kabeer, Volume 1 page 218

We read in Tafseer al-Kabeer:
“In some of the previous books it is written that Ibn Masud would reject Sur! ah Fatihah and Mu'awwidh-at [Mauzatain] as being a part of the Qur’an.”

Ibn Masud rejected Mu'awwidh-at / Mauzatain [Surah Naas & Surah Falaq] as a being part of the Qur’an

We are quoting from the following esteemed work of Ahle Sunnah:

Sahih Bukhari Volume 6 Hadith 501
Fatah al Bari, Volume 8 page 743, kitab al tafseer
Tafseer Dur al Manthur, Volume 6 page 416
Tafseer Ibn Kathir, Volume 4 page 571
Tafseer Qurtubi, Volume 2 page 251
Tafseer Ruh al Mani, Volume1 page 279
Sharah Mawafiq, page 679

We read in Sahih Bukhari [Volume 6 Hadith 501]:

Narrated Zirr bin Hubaish: I asked Ubai bin K! a'b, "O Abu AlMundhir! Your brother, Ibn Mas'ud said so-and-so (i.e., the two Mu'awwidh-at do not belong to the Qur’an)." Ubai said, "I asked Allah's Apostle about them, and he said, 'They have been revealed to me, and I have recited them (as a part of the Qur’an)," So Ubai added, "So we say as Allah's Apostle has said."

We read in Fatah al-Bari:

Al-Masnad, Al-Tabarani and Ibn Mardaweyh from the way of Al-A'mash from Abi Ishaq from Abd al Rahman bin Yazid Al-Nakhe’i, who said: "Abdullah Ibn Masud used to erase Al Ma'uzatayn from his Mushafs and say that they (Ma'uzatain) aren't from Qur’an.”

Online Fath al-Bari, Kitab Tafseer al Qur’an

We read in the esteemed Sunni work Tafseer Qurtubi, Volume 1 page 53 that:
“The status of Mauzatain is the same as the status of Baqra and Aal-Imran, whoever claims that it is not part of Qur’an is a kafir

Ibn Masud did not record Surah Fatihah (Al-Hamd) and Mu'awwidh in his Mushaf

Allamah Jalauddin Suyuti whilst citing Ibn Ashtah records in his esteemed book Tafseer Al Itqan [Vol 1: p. 173: 
“The sequence of Suras in Ibn Masud’s mushaf was in this manner:  Al I! twaal, Al Baqrah, Al Nisa, Aal e Imran...Al Kauthar, Qul Ya Ahu hal Kafirun, Tubat, Qul ho Allah ho Ahad and Alig wow Ra, Alif Laam Meem Nashrah and Al-Hamd and Mazuatain were not there in it”

The rejection of Mu'awwidh-at by Ibn Masud is proven from Sahih texts

Fatah al Bari, Volume 8 page 74
Tafseer Al Itqan (Urdu), Volume 1 page 212
Al Bidayah wal Nihayah , Volume 8 page 357
Majma al-Zawaid, Volume 7 page 311 Tradition 11562

All these books evidence beyond reasonable doubt Ibn Masud’s rejections of two Qur’anic Surahs. We shall now cite the view of Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti from Al Itqan (published by Idaara Islamiyah, Lahore):

“Abdullah bin Ahmed in a book ‘Ziaraat al Musnad’ and Tabarani and Ibn Marjah following A’mash through Abi Ishaq, Abdul Rehman Bin Yazid Nukh’ei narrated: “Abdullah Ibn Masud used to erase Mauzatain from his mushaf and would attest that both of these verses are not a part of the Qur’an”. And Bazar and Tabarani at another place have narrated from the same narrator that: “Abdullah Ibn Masud would write and erase Mauztain from his copies of the Qur’an and would state that the Holy Prophet [s] had only instructed him to use these Surahs as Taweez and Abdullah Ibn Masud did not recite these Surahs”. All the chains of this narration are Sahih”.

Similarly Imam Abi Bakar al-Haythami records in Majma al-Zawaid:

Abdulrahman bin Yazid al-Nakhaei said: Abdullah (Ibn Masud) used to erase Muwaztain from his Mushaf and say: ‘
It is not a part of Alla! h's book’. It is narrated by Abdullah bin Ahmad and Tabarani, the narrators of Abdullah are the narrators of the Sahih and Tabarani's narrators are authentic (Thuqat)”

The companions believed that words have been added in Surah Lail and its endorsement by Imam Bukhari

We read in Sahih Bukhari 6:60:468:

Narrated Ibrahim: The companions of 'Abdullah (bin Mas'ud) came to Abu Darda', (and before they arrived at his home), he looked for them and found them. Then he asked them: 'Who among you can recite (Qur'an) as 'Abdullah recites it?" They replied, "All of us." He asked, "Who among you knows it by heart?" They pointed at 'Alqama. Then he asked Alqama. "How did you hear 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud reciting Surat Al-Lail (The Night)?" A! lqama recited: 'By the male and the female.' Abu Ad-Darda said, "I testify that I heard the Prophet reciting it likewise, but these people want me to recite it:- 'And by Him Who created male and female.' but by Allah, I will not follow them."

Unlike the followers of Abdullah Ibn Masud, Alqama and Abu Ad-Darda, all Muslims today read in Surat Al-Lail (The Night) verse No. 3:

And Him Who hath created male and female [Pickthal 92:3].

Compare this recital to that offered by Ibn Masud’s followers, Alqama and the testimony of Abu Ad-Darda, whose recital included these words 'By the male and the female’.

The tradition recorded by Imam Bukhari in his ‘Sahih’ indirectly persuades his adherents to erase the extra words 'Him Who created' from this verse since the companions heard the Prophet recite it with the words ‘By the male and the female’. This tradition clearly highlights belief in the distortion of the Qur’an.

The Mushaf of Sahabi Ubai bin Ka'b did not have a word that the present Qur’an contains

We read in Surah Nisa, verse 101:

And when you journey in the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten the prayer, if you fear that those who disbelieve will cause you distress, surely the unbelievers are your open enemy. [Shakir 4:101]


We read in Tafseer Dur e Manthur, Volume 2, page 210:

Ibn Jarir and ibn al-Munder recorded that Ubai used to recite the verse '{if you shorten the prayer, if you fear that those who disbelieve will cause you distress} without reciting '{if you fear}'while in Uthman's Mushaf its '{if you fear that those who disbelieve will cause you distress}'. [Tafseer Dur e Manthur, Surah Nisa, Verse 101]

This Sunni tradition clearly demonstrates that additions have been made to the Qur’an by Uthman while accordong to the belief of Sahabi Ubai bin K! aab the words 'if you fear' (IN KHIFTUM) are not the part of this verse.

Continues on Part II



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